About Journal

Engineering and Technology Journal is a global, scientific and Open Access journal. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published monthly by the University of Technology (UOT), Iraq, since 1977 (printed version) and since 2005 (online version). ETJ publishes original articles and review papers in the fields of engineering and science. The journal is using a double-blind peer-reviewing system to assure the quality of the publication. The iThenticate service is used to prevent plagiarism and to ensure...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Technology-Iraq

Email:  [email protected]

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Qusay F. Alsalhy

Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 34 (2016)
Volume 31 (2013)
Volume 28 (2010)
Investigation of Some Properties for Laminated Composite Used for Prosthetic Socket

Shereen A. Abdulrahman; Qahtan A. Hamad; Jawad K. Oleiwi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1625-1631
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2050

Polyester has been used as a prosthetic socket base. It is well documented that the raw material of the socket base should have exhibited good mechanical properties. Prosthetic socket is a device that connects an artificial limb with the amputee part. In this work, seven laminated composites were prepared using vacuum technique from polyester resin and reinforced with Jute, Carbon, Glass, and Perlon fibers. The objective of this study is to manufacture prosthetic sockets from different laminated composite materials (fibers reinforced polymer) to make high-strength and durable prosthetic socket design. The results showed that the best laminated composite specimens have three jute fiber layers with four carbon layers whose compression strength and hardness reach (67) MPa and (86) Shore-D, respectively. Also, the water absorption of the composite specimen of jute with carbon fibers is higher than that of the composite specimen of jute with glass fiber.

Evaluation of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al / Fe3O4 Nanocomposites

Suaad M. Jiaad; Khansaa Salman; Ahmed A. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1632-1638
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2080

The goal of this research is to study the microstructural analysis and mechanical properties of an aluminum matrix reinforced with different amounts of nano Fe3O4 at (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10wt. %). Al/ Fe3O4 nanocomposites specimens were prepared using the powder metallurgy route. Many examinations, including Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, were performed on the specimens in this study to determine the microstructure and phases of the nanocomposites. Mechanical tests, such as compressive, microhardness, and wear tests, were also performed to assess the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The results of this study show that Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been homogeneously dispersed in the Al matrix by FESEM and XRD examination. While the mechanical tests show improving the compressive strength at 6 wt.% by 5.36%, the highest microhardness was at 10% by 101.6% compared with the pure Al, and improving the wear rate.

Investigation of the Effect of Microcapsule Additive on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Concrete

Reem T. Salmana; Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead; Farhad M. Othman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1639-1645
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2091

Cracks are a fundamental problem in concrete, so this research investigates an experimental study of the effect of adding SiO2 on the self-healing behaviour of concrete. The study is done by studying the physical properties, microstructure, and mechanical properties of concrete. Microcapsules were prepared to contain (cement and nano SiO2) in a (palettization (fluidize bed coating) method) with (5,10, and 15) % of cement weight. The ratio of the prepared concrete mixture was (1: 2: 4) and the ratio of water to cement (W / C) 0.45 by the weight of cement was also added as 0.6% Superplasticizer to all concrete mixtures. SiO2 MC is added with (2.5) % of the cement weight in the concrete mixture. In this study, porosity, density, and water absorption tests were performed to study the physical properties, compressive and bending strength to study mechanical properties. So, referring to the results, (SiO2 MC) was used as an effective effect in the self-healing cracking mechanism, and in improving the bending strength and compressive strength. Also, 10 % wt. was recorded as the best addition because it has a positive effect on properties to be applied in construction.

Wild Clary Plant Extract as Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Seawater Medium

Zainab S. Aziz; Rana A. Majed; Majid H. Abd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1646-1653
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2151

Aqueous extract of wild clary has been used in place of a corrosion inhibitor in the corrosion control of carbon steel. The major components of this extract are Ethan amine, Amino-octadic, and 4H-Pyran-4-one. It has an excellent inhibition efficiency (IE) of 83.078% at a concentration of 20 (mL/L) and a temperature of 298 (K). The extract was characterized by FTIR and GC MS, where the antibacterial was tested and the protective film was analyzed on the samples using FTIR spectra. The protective film formed on the metal surface is confirmed using an electrochemical study by Potentiostat, which revealed that this extract was a mixed-type inhibitor.

Recycling of Wood – Plastic Composite Prepared from Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate) and Wood Sawdust

Halla M. Shehap; Mohammed A. ALzuhairi; Sarmad I. Ibrahim; Saif S. Hussien

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1654-1662
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2203

Plastic waste has become one of the humanities and the ecosystem balance serious environmental Challenges. Furthermore, it is the primary source of plastic pollution because it is inexpensive, widely available, and frequently discarded. Using various waste materials and side fractions as part of wood-plastic composites is one way to promote the circular economy (WPC). Several environmental benefits can be realized by using recycled plastic, including extending the usable life of plastic, reducing waste, contributing to the development of trash recycling, and preventing resource depletion. One of the most efficient recycling processes is glycolysis; the (PET) is depolymerized by ethylene glycol in continuous stirring reactors at temperatures between 200 and 220◦C using glycol as solvent. This work concentrates on the experimental investigation of composite materials from DE polymerization PET, Unsaturated polyester, and VV/55 as a matrix and wood sawdust as reinforcement. The composite samples were checked by the Hardness test, water test, and density test. According to the experimental results, the optimum value is at (2%) wood percentage, giving high hardness value, low density, and low water absorption.

Preparation of Graphene Nanosheets from Graphite Flakes via Shear Assisted Exfoliation

Ali J. Saloum; Basma H. Al-Tamimi; Saad B.H. Farid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 11, Pages 1663-1668
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i11.2219

Graphene is one of the most important forms of carbon. Due to its exceptional physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, it’s used in different fields such as electronic, energy storage, and medical applications. Therefore, the production of graphene in large quantities, at a low cost, and high quality, has become critical. Using graphite powder, a few layers of graphene sheets were prepared via a series of mechanical exfoliation methods. the dry ball milling process by the planetary mill was used. Thereafter, the milling was followed by shear force and then supported by ultra-sonication to reach the lowest level of the graphene layers. Morphological properties were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Also, structural characterizations were investigated using Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and (FTIR). Findings presented in this research highlighted that the synthesis method followed was found to have several advantages, including low cost and the ease of producing a few layers of graphene nanosheets. Subsequently, the promising efficiency of the used methodology is important.

Improved Approach to Iris Normalization for iris Recognition System

Abdulamir Abdullah karim; Sarah jasim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 213-221

As a part of a growing information society, security and the authentication of individuals become nowadays more than ever an asset of great significance in almost every field.Iris recognition system provides identification and verification automatically of an individual based on characteristics and unique features in iris structure. Accurate iris recognition system based on iris segmentation method and how localized the inner and outer iris boundariesthat can be damaged by irrelevant parts such as eyelashes and eyelid, to achieve this aim, the proposed method applied canny edge detection then circle hough transformation on an eye image passed through preprocessing operations. The proposed iris normalization is done by using the important information that resulted from circle hough transformation such as center and radius of iris and center and radius of pupil to convert iris region in original image from the Cartesian coordinates (x,y) to the normalized polar coordinates (r,θ).The proposed approach tested conducted on the iris data set (CASIA v4.0- interval), and tested on (CASIA v1.0- interval) iris image database and the results indicated that proposed approach has 99.8% accuracy rate with (CASIA v4.0- interval),and has 100% accuracy rate with (CASIA v1.0- interval) .

Use of IT Photographic and GIS in the Analysis of Complex Intersection of University of Baghdad

O.Z. Jasim; N.M. Alhayani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 64-74

When planning to do a port or a new road or when determine the turning traffic movements for any road,
we must know the traffic movement on the road to determine the distribution and direction of the turning
traffic, and we must know pedestrian traffic, parking and land uses adjacent because this will help to
forecasting the magnitude of the changes in the movement of turning traffic in the future, which helps to
determine the priorities of sustainable development required. The increasing population and the preparation
of private vehicles of the most important factors that have helped to increase traffic congestion and transport
problems and the growing proportion of traffic, causing accidents and pollution as well as large losses of
the national economy. Pushing to put these problems to be addressed to search for the best possible means
to be diagnosed and treated as soon as what can be achieved through the use of modern technology as a
way analytical. It is no doubt that a GIS is one of the most important of these methods adopted in the world
in support of the decision and personalized sites imbalance through adoption in identifying problems of
traffic intersections and traffic streams through them and their sizes especially in the intersections of the
main streets in large cities and neighboring land uses task scope regional service, such as universities and
ministries. It also we can take advantage of modern technology through the use of Photographic technique
and application of computer programs in the survey and analysis of turning traffic for these nodes to ease
the pressure on those whom in charge of research to get the data for the streams of traffic and employ this
technique along the style of GIS in the analysis and treatment, and this would save a lot of time, cost and
effort with more accurate data. In addition, that is what this research will try to focus it through analytical
situ study for the problem of the mother Baghdad university intersection in the city of Baghdad, with the
two methods of modern technology.

Human Thermal Comfort Evaluation in Open Spaces of Two Multi-Story Residential Complexes Having Different Design Settings, Duhok-Iraq

Turki Hasan Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 8, Pages 1700-1715

To achieve a sustainable residential area, open spaces must promote comfort and invite people to stay outdoors and prolonging their stays, which will contribute to a more lively residential areas offering greater interaction between its inhabitants. Thermal comfort is an essential factor that should be considered in any urban design process, urban design characteristics of any project have a strong influence on human thermal comfort at outdoor spaces, like its spatial organization and landscape elements, the paper aims to assess the impact of spatial organization differentiation on thermal comfort of inhabitants in two different residential multi-story complexes in Duhok city. Thermal comfort for an urban context in hot and semi-dry climate zone based on the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index have been adopted and simulated by ENVI-met program, two simulations were conducted for each complex through climatic data of the hottest day in summer and coldest day in winter of 2013. The results reveal that the two complexes have not provided a comfortable space during the two seasons in general, but it showed that the second complex has a better performance in this respect for the two seasons, in spite of the poor landscaping it has, the paper concludes the importance of the urban design characteristics represented by the spatial organization on thermal comfort of the inhabitants at open spaces at such kind of projects and climate, and the necessity of adopting more compact and close spaces.

The Effects of Different Environmental Conditions on the Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Plates

Ghydaa K. Yass; Safaa H. Abdul Rahman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2259-2275

The failure of polymer matrix composite upon exposure to the environment
conditions has been assessed in the present study. Glass fabrics and unsaturated
polyester resin were selected to fabricate 8-layer laminates cross ply [(0/90)8]
arranged in symmetric and antisymmetric stacking sequence. Environmental
conditioning using Sea and Tap water with humidity exposure and Ultraviolet
radiation was conducted to investigate the vibrations characteristics of symmetric
and antisymmetric composite samples. After exposure time to the conditions
above for 500, 1000 and 2000 hr, laminates were subjected to three point bending
testing, in order to study their flexural properties (stiffness and strength) before
and after these exposures. Then a finite element analysis using the package
program ANSYS (version 10) was used for the analysis of free vibration
characteristics. The object was to obtain the natural frequency for each case of
environmental conditions at different exposure times. The results showed that
natural frequencies of cantilever laminate plates decreased with the increased
exposure time for the different environmental conditions.

Cathodic Protection of Steel Reinforcement in Concrete

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 131-142

The present research has be investigated the relation between the induced
level of polarization and the area of the embedded steel, area of the anode, the
concrete resistance and the level of applied external voltage. During exposure
period, the specimens were polarized using three different levels of external
voltages (750, 1000, 1500) mV. Various electrochemical and electrical
measurements were made, these include half cell potential, degree of polarization,
flowing current and the actually applied voltage as compared with the external one.
The results indicate differential moisture content in each specimen has
produced different potentials along the steel bars. Greater polarization has always
been associated with the submerged portion of the specimen where the concrete
resistance is at its minimum. whereas the degree of polarization is directly
proportional to the level of external voltage. The results also illustrate that, for a
given level of externally applied voltage, the degree of polarization is dependent on
the area of protected steel and the area of the anode. Thus the polarization increases with the decrease in the protected steel area and the increase of the area
of the anode.

Cathodic Protection of Steel Reinforcement in Concrete

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 131-142

The present research has be investigated the relation between the induced
level of polarization and the area of the embedded steel, area of the anode, the
concrete resistance and the level of applied external voltage. During exposure
period, the specimens were polarized using three different levels of external
voltages (750, 1000, 1500) mV. Various electrochemical and electrical
measurements were made, these include half cell potential, degree of polarization,
flowing current and the actually applied voltage as compared with the external one.
The results indicate differential moisture content in each specimen has
produced different potentials along the steel bars. Greater polarization has always
been associated with the submerged portion of the specimen where the concrete
resistance is at its minimum. whereas the degree of polarization is directly
proportional to the level of external voltage. The results also illustrate that, for a
given level of externally applied voltage, the degree of polarization is dependent on
the area of protected steel and the area of the anode. Thus the polarization increases with the decrease in the protected steel area and the increase of the area
of the anode.

The Effects of Different Environmental Conditions on the Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Plates

Ghydaa K. Yass; Safaa H. Abdul Rahman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2259-2275

The failure of polymer matrix composite upon exposure to the environment
conditions has been assessed in the present study. Glass fabrics and unsaturated
polyester resin were selected to fabricate 8-layer laminates cross ply [(0/90)8]
arranged in symmetric and antisymmetric stacking sequence. Environmental
conditioning using Sea and Tap water with humidity exposure and Ultraviolet
radiation was conducted to investigate the vibrations characteristics of symmetric
and antisymmetric composite samples. After exposure time to the conditions
above for 500, 1000 and 2000 hr, laminates were subjected to three point bending
testing, in order to study their flexural properties (stiffness and strength) before
and after these exposures. Then a finite element analysis using the package
program ANSYS (version 10) was used for the analysis of free vibration
characteristics. The object was to obtain the natural frequency for each case of
environmental conditions at different exposure times. The results showed that
natural frequencies of cantilever laminate plates decreased with the increased
exposure time for the different environmental conditions.

Effect of Halogen Ions on The Corrosion of Brass In Na2SO4 Solution

Rana A. Majed; Saad M. Elia; Zahra; a Fadhel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1386-1395

This research involves study effect of halogen ions presence in 0.2M sodium
sulphate on the corrosion of brass at room temperature (30oC). Three concentration of
halogen ions (Fˉ, Clˉ, Brˉ, and Iˉ) were used 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 M. The different in
corrosion parameters before and after added the halogen ions interpreted and
discussed which involves corrosion potentials (Ecorr), corrosion current densities
(icorr), and Tafel slops (bc & ba) in addition to discuss the polarization curves.
Polarization resistances (Rp) and the change in free energy (ΔG) were
calculated and interpreted, in addition to calculate the rate of corrosion (Rmpy).
The results of this work indicates that the presence of halogen ions in
experimental solution increases the rate of corrosion, and the effect of halogen ions
follows the sequence to increase the corrosion Iˉ > Clˉ > Fˉ > Brˉ.

Use of IT Photographic and GIS in the Analysis of Complex Intersection of University of Baghdad

O.Z. Jasim; N.M. Alhayani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 64-74

When planning to do a port or a new road or when determine the turning traffic movements for any road,
we must know the traffic movement on the road to determine the distribution and direction of the turning
traffic, and we must know pedestrian traffic, parking and land uses adjacent because this will help to
forecasting the magnitude of the changes in the movement of turning traffic in the future, which helps to
determine the priorities of sustainable development required. The increasing population and the preparation
of private vehicles of the most important factors that have helped to increase traffic congestion and transport
problems and the growing proportion of traffic, causing accidents and pollution as well as large losses of
the national economy. Pushing to put these problems to be addressed to search for the best possible means
to be diagnosed and treated as soon as what can be achieved through the use of modern technology as a
way analytical. It is no doubt that a GIS is one of the most important of these methods adopted in the world
in support of the decision and personalized sites imbalance through adoption in identifying problems of
traffic intersections and traffic streams through them and their sizes especially in the intersections of the
main streets in large cities and neighboring land uses task scope regional service, such as universities and
ministries. It also we can take advantage of modern technology through the use of Photographic technique
and application of computer programs in the survey and analysis of turning traffic for these nodes to ease
the pressure on those whom in charge of research to get the data for the streams of traffic and employ this
technique along the style of GIS in the analysis and treatment, and this would save a lot of time, cost and
effort with more accurate data. In addition, that is what this research will try to focus it through analytical
situ study for the problem of the mother Baghdad university intersection in the city of Baghdad, with the
two methods of modern technology.

Measurement of Frequency Deviation By Using Arduino Uno

Widad Jasim Hamody; Nadheerah Haseeb Tawfeeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 947-959

This studyaims at constructing and implementinga new technique for calculating and correcting the frequency deviation in power systems. Several techniques were used to measure frequency deviation. One of them was Arduino Uno card which uses microcontroller ATmega328. This microcontroller board is an easy to use,accurate, economic and flexible solution for measurement problems.
The main objective of the work was to measure frequency deviation by microcontroller and displays it on (PC) monitor or small liquid crystal display (LCD) or both. Also, to correct the error if occurred by moving stepper motor with accurate steps which control the fuel gate in the generator, by reading the frequency at periodical time such as per 0.3 second and check the changes, if the frequency is more than required value. The controller and its suggested program (code) in C language will move the stepper motor clockwise (CW) until frequency reaches the required frequency (F0),i.e.50.00 HZ, if the reading gets lower than (F0), and the stepper motor will move counter clockwise (CCW) to get the required frequency. The system is applied practically by implementing the suggested design. This search achieved established control frequency of 99% along any variations in loads with high frequency reaches an accuracy 0.01HZ with low cost components.

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