About Journal

Engineering and Technology Journal is a global, scientific and Open Access journal. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published monthly by the University of Technology (UOT), Iraq, since 2005. ETJ publishes original articles and review papers in the fields of engineering and science. The journal is using a double-blind peer-reviewing system to assure the quality of the publication. The iThenticate service is used to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. Publishing...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Technology-Iraq

Email:  [email protected]

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Qusay F. Alsalhy

Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 34 (2016)
Volume 31 (2013)
Volume 28 (2010)
ANSYS-Based Structural Analysis Study of Elevated Spherical Tank Exposed to Earthquake

Mahmoud Saleh Al-Khafaji; Ahlam S. Mohammed; Muna A. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 870-883
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.168446

Damage of elevated tanks during earthquakes can jeopardize the supply of drinking water and causes significant economic losses. Therefore, seismic analysis of tanks containing liquids requires special consideration. Knowledge of liquid hydrodynamic pressures developed during an earthquake is important for tank design. This paper aims to verify the dynamic reaction of structural systems of spherical elevated steel tanks containing water, and determine the natural frequencies that contribute to the physical response, as well as seismic analysis of the tank. A three dimensional Finite Element Model was developed to identify the main parameters involved in this response for three different fullness ratio (0.00%, 53.30% and 71.11%) using the ANSYS software. The model was implemented and validated based on the results of a previously conducted experimental study. Moreover, it was analyzed under the impact of the most severe earthquake that Iraq was exposed to in 2017 with a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale. The results showed a very good agreement in natural frequency with a discrepancy (root mean square error) of 2% (0.05 Hz), 6.9% (0.15 Hz) and 9.5% (0.2 Hz) for the fullness ratio 0%, 53.3% and 71.11%, respectively In addition, the selected element type and the method of analysis are applicable. Moreover, results of displacement and stresses from earthquake analysis indicated that the spherical tank could lose stability in time 1.4 seconds of the proposed time for the worst part of the earthquake, when displacement records highest values in the direction of earthquake for the tank body at chosen points in the top, middle, and bottom of the tank body which were almost equally at all cases proposed in this study.

Improved Approach to Iris Normalization for iris Recognition System

Abdulamir Abdullah karim; Sarah jasim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 213-221

As a part of a growing information society, security and the authentication of individuals become nowadays more than ever an asset of great significance in almost every field.Iris recognition system provides identification and verification automatically of an individual based on characteristics and unique features in iris structure. Accurate iris recognition system based on iris segmentation method and how localized the inner and outer iris boundariesthat can be damaged by irrelevant parts such as eyelashes and eyelid, to achieve this aim, the proposed method applied canny edge detection then circle hough transformation on an eye image passed through preprocessing operations. The proposed iris normalization is done by using the important information that resulted from circle hough transformation such as center and radius of iris and center and radius of pupil to convert iris region in original image from the Cartesian coordinates (x,y) to the normalized polar coordinates (r,θ).The proposed approach tested conducted on the iris data set (CASIA v4.0- interval), and tested on (CASIA v1.0- interval) iris image database and the results indicated that proposed approach has 99.8% accuracy rate with (CASIA v4.0- interval),and has 100% accuracy rate with (CASIA v1.0- interval) .

Use of IT Photographic and GIS in the Analysis of Complex Intersection of University of Baghdad

O.Z. Jasim; N.M. Alhayani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 64-74

When planning to do a port or a new road or when determine the turning traffic movements for any road,
we must know the traffic movement on the road to determine the distribution and direction of the turning
traffic, and we must know pedestrian traffic, parking and land uses adjacent because this will help to
forecasting the magnitude of the changes in the movement of turning traffic in the future, which helps to
determine the priorities of sustainable development required. The increasing population and the preparation
of private vehicles of the most important factors that have helped to increase traffic congestion and transport
problems and the growing proportion of traffic, causing accidents and pollution as well as large losses of
the national economy. Pushing to put these problems to be addressed to search for the best possible means
to be diagnosed and treated as soon as what can be achieved through the use of modern technology as a
way analytical. It is no doubt that a GIS is one of the most important of these methods adopted in the world
in support of the decision and personalized sites imbalance through adoption in identifying problems of
traffic intersections and traffic streams through them and their sizes especially in the intersections of the
main streets in large cities and neighboring land uses task scope regional service, such as universities and
ministries. It also we can take advantage of modern technology through the use of Photographic technique
and application of computer programs in the survey and analysis of turning traffic for these nodes to ease
the pressure on those whom in charge of research to get the data for the streams of traffic and employ this
technique along the style of GIS in the analysis and treatment, and this would save a lot of time, cost and
effort with more accurate data. In addition, that is what this research will try to focus it through analytical
situ study for the problem of the mother Baghdad university intersection in the city of Baghdad, with the
two methods of modern technology.

Human Thermal Comfort Evaluation in Open Spaces of Two Multi-Story Residential Complexes Having Different Design Settings, Duhok-Iraq

Turki Hasan Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 8, Pages 1700-1715

To achieve a sustainable residential area, open spaces must promote comfort and invite people to stay outdoors and prolonging their stays, which will contribute to a more lively residential areas offering greater interaction between its inhabitants. Thermal comfort is an essential factor that should be considered in any urban design process, urban design characteristics of any project have a strong influence on human thermal comfort at outdoor spaces, like its spatial organization and landscape elements, the paper aims to assess the impact of spatial organization differentiation on thermal comfort of inhabitants in two different residential multi-story complexes in Duhok city. Thermal comfort for an urban context in hot and semi-dry climate zone based on the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index have been adopted and simulated by ENVI-met program, two simulations were conducted for each complex through climatic data of the hottest day in summer and coldest day in winter of 2013. The results reveal that the two complexes have not provided a comfortable space during the two seasons in general, but it showed that the second complex has a better performance in this respect for the two seasons, in spite of the poor landscaping it has, the paper concludes the importance of the urban design characteristics represented by the spatial organization on thermal comfort of the inhabitants at open spaces at such kind of projects and climate, and the necessity of adopting more compact and close spaces.

Cathodic Protection of Steel Reinforcement in Concrete

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 131-142

The present research has be investigated the relation between the induced
level of polarization and the area of the embedded steel, area of the anode, the
concrete resistance and the level of applied external voltage. During exposure
period, the specimens were polarized using three different levels of external
voltages (750, 1000, 1500) mV. Various electrochemical and electrical
measurements were made, these include half cell potential, degree of polarization,
flowing current and the actually applied voltage as compared with the external one.
The results indicate differential moisture content in each specimen has
produced different potentials along the steel bars. Greater polarization has always
been associated with the submerged portion of the specimen where the concrete
resistance is at its minimum. whereas the degree of polarization is directly
proportional to the level of external voltage. The results also illustrate that, for a
given level of externally applied voltage, the degree of polarization is dependent on
the area of protected steel and the area of the anode. Thus the polarization increases with the decrease in the protected steel area and the increase of the area
of the anode.

The Effects of Different Environmental Conditions on the Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Plates

Ghydaa K. Yass; Safaa H. Abdul Rahman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2259-2275

The failure of polymer matrix composite upon exposure to the environment
conditions has been assessed in the present study. Glass fabrics and unsaturated
polyester resin were selected to fabricate 8-layer laminates cross ply [(0/90)8]
arranged in symmetric and antisymmetric stacking sequence. Environmental
conditioning using Sea and Tap water with humidity exposure and Ultraviolet
radiation was conducted to investigate the vibrations characteristics of symmetric
and antisymmetric composite samples. After exposure time to the conditions
above for 500, 1000 and 2000 hr, laminates were subjected to three point bending
testing, in order to study their flexural properties (stiffness and strength) before
and after these exposures. Then a finite element analysis using the package
program ANSYS (version 10) was used for the analysis of free vibration
characteristics. The object was to obtain the natural frequency for each case of
environmental conditions at different exposure times. The results showed that
natural frequencies of cantilever laminate plates decreased with the increased
exposure time for the different environmental conditions.

Cathodic Protection of Steel Reinforcement in Concrete

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 131-142

The present research has be investigated the relation between the induced
level of polarization and the area of the embedded steel, area of the anode, the
concrete resistance and the level of applied external voltage. During exposure
period, the specimens were polarized using three different levels of external
voltages (750, 1000, 1500) mV. Various electrochemical and electrical
measurements were made, these include half cell potential, degree of polarization,
flowing current and the actually applied voltage as compared with the external one.
The results indicate differential moisture content in each specimen has
produced different potentials along the steel bars. Greater polarization has always
been associated with the submerged portion of the specimen where the concrete
resistance is at its minimum. whereas the degree of polarization is directly
proportional to the level of external voltage. The results also illustrate that, for a
given level of externally applied voltage, the degree of polarization is dependent on
the area of protected steel and the area of the anode. Thus the polarization increases with the decrease in the protected steel area and the increase of the area
of the anode.

The Effects of Different Environmental Conditions on the Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Plates

Ghydaa K. Yass; Safaa H. Abdul Rahman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2259-2275

The failure of polymer matrix composite upon exposure to the environment
conditions has been assessed in the present study. Glass fabrics and unsaturated
polyester resin were selected to fabricate 8-layer laminates cross ply [(0/90)8]
arranged in symmetric and antisymmetric stacking sequence. Environmental
conditioning using Sea and Tap water with humidity exposure and Ultraviolet
radiation was conducted to investigate the vibrations characteristics of symmetric
and antisymmetric composite samples. After exposure time to the conditions
above for 500, 1000 and 2000 hr, laminates were subjected to three point bending
testing, in order to study their flexural properties (stiffness and strength) before
and after these exposures. Then a finite element analysis using the package
program ANSYS (version 10) was used for the analysis of free vibration
characteristics. The object was to obtain the natural frequency for each case of
environmental conditions at different exposure times. The results showed that
natural frequencies of cantilever laminate plates decreased with the increased
exposure time for the different environmental conditions.

Effect of Halogen Ions on The Corrosion of Brass In Na2SO4 Solution

Rana A. Majed; Saad M. Elia; Zahra; a Fadhel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1386-1395

This research involves study effect of halogen ions presence in 0.2M sodium
sulphate on the corrosion of brass at room temperature (30oC). Three concentration of
halogen ions (Fˉ, Clˉ, Brˉ, and Iˉ) were used 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 M. The different in
corrosion parameters before and after added the halogen ions interpreted and
discussed which involves corrosion potentials (Ecorr), corrosion current densities
(icorr), and Tafel slops (bc & ba) in addition to discuss the polarization curves.
Polarization resistances (Rp) and the change in free energy (ΔG) were
calculated and interpreted, in addition to calculate the rate of corrosion (Rmpy).
The results of this work indicates that the presence of halogen ions in
experimental solution increases the rate of corrosion, and the effect of halogen ions
follows the sequence to increase the corrosion Iˉ > Clˉ > Fˉ > Brˉ.

Use of IT Photographic and GIS in the Analysis of Complex Intersection of University of Baghdad

O.Z. Jasim; N.M. Alhayani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 0, Pages 64-74

When planning to do a port or a new road or when determine the turning traffic movements for any road,
we must know the traffic movement on the road to determine the distribution and direction of the turning
traffic, and we must know pedestrian traffic, parking and land uses adjacent because this will help to
forecasting the magnitude of the changes in the movement of turning traffic in the future, which helps to
determine the priorities of sustainable development required. The increasing population and the preparation
of private vehicles of the most important factors that have helped to increase traffic congestion and transport
problems and the growing proportion of traffic, causing accidents and pollution as well as large losses of
the national economy. Pushing to put these problems to be addressed to search for the best possible means
to be diagnosed and treated as soon as what can be achieved through the use of modern technology as a
way analytical. It is no doubt that a GIS is one of the most important of these methods adopted in the world
in support of the decision and personalized sites imbalance through adoption in identifying problems of
traffic intersections and traffic streams through them and their sizes especially in the intersections of the
main streets in large cities and neighboring land uses task scope regional service, such as universities and
ministries. It also we can take advantage of modern technology through the use of Photographic technique
and application of computer programs in the survey and analysis of turning traffic for these nodes to ease
the pressure on those whom in charge of research to get the data for the streams of traffic and employ this
technique along the style of GIS in the analysis and treatment, and this would save a lot of time, cost and
effort with more accurate data. In addition, that is what this research will try to focus it through analytical
situ study for the problem of the mother Baghdad university intersection in the city of Baghdad, with the
two methods of modern technology.

Measurement of Frequency Deviation By Using Arduino Uno

Widad Jasim Hamody; Nadheerah Haseeb Tawfeeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 947-959

This studyaims at constructing and implementinga new technique for calculating and correcting the frequency deviation in power systems. Several techniques were used to measure frequency deviation. One of them was Arduino Uno card which uses microcontroller ATmega328. This microcontroller board is an easy to use,accurate, economic and flexible solution for measurement problems.
The main objective of the work was to measure frequency deviation by microcontroller and displays it on (PC) monitor or small liquid crystal display (LCD) or both. Also, to correct the error if occurred by moving stepper motor with accurate steps which control the fuel gate in the generator, by reading the frequency at periodical time such as per 0.3 second and check the changes, if the frequency is more than required value. The controller and its suggested program (code) in C language will move the stepper motor clockwise (CW) until frequency reaches the required frequency (F0),i.e.50.00 HZ, if the reading gets lower than (F0), and the stepper motor will move counter clockwise (CCW) to get the required frequency. The system is applied practically by implementing the suggested design. This search achieved established control frequency of 99% along any variations in loads with high frequency reaches an accuracy 0.01HZ with low cost components.

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