Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : TiO

Experimental Comparison Between Conventional Coolants and (TiO2/Water) Nano fluid to select the best Coolant for Automobiles in Iraq's Summer Season

Abdulmunem R. Abdulmunem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 5, Pages 912-926

This work, presentsnanofluids as a new coolant technology in automobile engines compared with other conventional coolants (Ethylene glycol/water(antifreeze), distilled water) experimentally.The increase in thermal conductivity of the base fluid (water) by adding nanoparticles in certain ratios led to more absorption of heat from engine block. The experimental results indicated that the drooping in exit engine coolant temperatures was about(18.5%) by using (0.3%TiO2/water)nanofluid, and about (9%) by using distilled water comparative with Ethylene glycol/water(50/50) at the test end. The increasing in radiator(heat exchanger) effectiveness was about (51%) with using nanofluid, and about (29%) with using distilled water comparative with Ethylene glycol/water(50/50) at the test end. The results indicated also that the increasing in Nusselt’s number at entrance of radiator hose was about (42.8%) with usingnanofluid and about (30.5%) with using distilled water compared with Ethylene glycol/water(50/50).This led to increase convection heat transfer coefficient at entrance of radiator hoseby about (65%) with using nanofluidand about (49.5%) with using distilled water compared with Ethylene glycol/water (50/50).

Dopant Effect on The Nonlinear Optical Properties of TiO2- PMMA Nano Composites for Optical Limiter Applications

Aya H. Makki; Ali H. AL-Hamadani; Mohammed Abdulridha Husien

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 5, Pages 1012-1016

In this paper theeffect of ZnO dopant on the nonlinearoptical behavior of TiO2-PMMA Nano composites films was studied. TiO2-PMMA Nano composites films were prepared using solution casting method then doped with different amounts of ZnO nanoparticles. Z-Scan measurements were performed to obtain the nonlinear optical response of these samples at 1064nm using CW Nd-YAG laser. The addition of ZnO nanoparticle into the Nano composites showed a great enhancement in the nonlinear optical response and decreasing in limiting threshold (10 mW)as the dopants concentration increased.

Preparation of NanostructureTiO2 at Different Temperatures by Pulsed Laser Deposition as Solar Cell

Amin Daway Thamir; Adawiya J. Haider; Ghalib A.Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 193-204
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112609

Deposition of the Titanium oxide (TiO2) particles on glass and the Si substrates was materialized for a wide range of temperatures (100-400)°C; using PLD technique at constant laser energy 800 mJ of frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser wavelength of 532nm running at 10 Hz rate and 10ns duration pulses. UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope(AFM), electrical conductivity (σdc), Hall coefficient (RH) and (I-V) and (C-V) measurements were employed to examine optical, morphological and electrical properties of the deposited films. 85% film transparency was accomplished with optical band gap of (3.25 – 3.64) eV.(I-V) characteristics showedan enhanced TiO2 p-n junction thin film solar cell efficiency by 1.6% at 400°C.

Effect of Flow Rate on Characterizations of TiO2 Nano fibers using Electro spinning Method

Muhsin A. Kudhier; Raad S. Sabry; Yousif K. Al-Haidarie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 9, Pages 1599-1607

TiO2nanofibers with anatase structure were synthesized by anelectrospinning method. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that TiO2 nanofibers were polycrystalline with anatase phase.The effects of flow rate parameter on TiO2 nanofibers were examined using atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy. The energy gap was estimated and optical behavior was studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. It was noted that the average diameter of these nanofibersincreases from (82-320) nm with increasing theflow rate from (1- 10ml/h) respectively. The length of the nanofibers reached to several microns.

Urea Modified TiO2 Nanoparticles Prepared by Sol-Gel Method to enhance the Photocatalytic Activity under Sunlight

Ban M.Al-Shabander; Ekram A. Ajaj

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 9, Pages 1591-1598

Pure and urea (5wt %) doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel method. The preparation of pure and urea doped TiO2 nanoparticles were achieved by titanium tetraisopropoxide, hydrochloric acid and ethanol as starting materials and the products were annealed at 600°C to get anatase phase. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT- IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Thephotocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) in aqueous solution at concentration (10ppm) under sunlight irradiation. The experimental results reveal that the urea doped TiO2 nanoparticles exhibit an enhanced photocatalytic activity in sunlight compared with that of pure TiO2 nanoparticles.

Effect of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Water absorption and shrinkage of the PVA/CS Blend and PVA/CS nanocomposites thick Films

Harith Ibrahim jaafer; Abeer Mohamad Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 7, Pages 1232-1243

In this paper the effect ofaddition0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8,1gofTitanium oxide (TiO2)Nanoparticles inwater absorption, dimensions change and thickness for Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Corn Starch(CS)10g/10g blend and PVA/CS/TiO2 thick films have been studied. Films were prepared using solution casting method. Films were immersing in water for 60 days. The results show that, the water absorption and dimensions change decrease with increasing nanoparticles content, but thickness increase with increasing nanoparticles after immersion, also weightlosing, dimensions change and thickness were found after drying. The results show that the weightlosing, dimensions change decrease with increasing nanoparticles, reducing in thickness increase with increasing nanoparticles

Synthesis of Nano-TiO2 Thin Films by Sol-gel Dip-coating Method

Bushra R. Mahdi; Abass F. Al.mamori; Adnan meship Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 7, Pages 1303-1312

Synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) Thin film on three microscope glasses using sol-gel method has been studied intensively. The starting materials were titanium(III)chloride, Ammonium Hydroxide. The components were mixed together to form the sol. Then, at 50℃ heating and ageing was applied to form stable sol-gel . Every glass substrate dipping in sol-gel beaker for period time (1,3,5)min respectively, for obtaining different thickness films. To evaluate the performance of films, After annealing at 500℃ , the crystallinity of the films was determined by using the x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The change on the surface morphology was observed using Atomic Force Microscope(AFM). Finally, Optical properties measurements Absorbance (A) and transmittance(T)) for (TiO2) films were studied by UV-Visible spectrometer.
analysis on the films. It has been successfully shown that the anatase crystalline phase was observed when the TiO2 thin film was annealing at 500°C. The roughness and the crystalline size of TiO2 thin film changed with the thickness. The minimum grain size( 6.92) nm for thickness 1.2µm UV-visible studying that absorption is maximum at UV spectrum (opaque) and the transmittance is maximum at the visible spectrum

Study The Convective Heat Transfer of TiO2 /Water Nanofluid in Heat Exchanger System

Asmaa H.Dhiaa; Majid I. Abdulwahab; S.M.Thahab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 7, Pages 1319-1329

The enhancements of heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number in a heat exchanger system were achieved by using Titanium-dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm. TiO2 nanoparticles/water has a better thermal conductivity compared to conventional working fluids (water). The heat transfer rate in a vertical shell and tube heat exchanger counter flow under laminar and turbulent flow conditions were investigated. The liquid flow rate has been varied in the range of 50-300 l/h whilethe inlet temperature was between 20 to 60ºC. The effects of factors such as the Reynolds number and the peclet number on the heat transfer and flow characteristics were carried out and investigated. It was observed that the convection heat transfer increased remarkably with the increment of the temperature under various values of the Reynolds number.As well as,the Nusselt number increased about 17% as compared to pure water;at a nanofluid velocity of 0.0192 m/s at inlet temperature of 600C.

Characterization of Nano Powder Incorporated for Building Applications

Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead; Farhad M. Othman; Mustafa M .Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 6, Pages 1027-1039

In this paper Nano powders were used a mono; copper oxide CuO and di metal oxides powder; titanium dioxide (TiO2) in fabrication of mortar. Powder particle size about (67.8 nm) for TiO2 and (55.7nm) for CuO with crystal structure tetragonal and monoclinic system respectively have been used. These Nano powders were used as additives to the mortar material (0.5, 2.5, 5, 7.5 wt %) in order to be used in construction application including covering building, and studies on these mortar. Investigation was done on the mortar including XRD, AFM, optical microscopy, physical and some mechanical properties, micro hardness and wear rate). Results shows that where there an increase in micro hardness and decrease in wear rate in the mortar with the addition of Nano powder. Also be reduced Ca(OH)2 soft crystals and formation fine grains structure and homogeneous and the abolition of flaws or cracks. And the mortar with the Nano addition has been improved, which make the addition of Nano material beneficial and have a promising future in modern construction application.

Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Nanoparticles via Sol-Gel Method by Pulse Laser Ablation

Adawiya J. Haider; Zainab N. Jameel; Samar Y. Taha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 5, Pages 761-771

Nanocrystalline titania powder was prepared at room temperature via sol-gel method; using TiCl4 as precursor and absolute ethanol solution. After mixing, the gel solution was formed. Then the sol-gel dried and calcined at different temperatures. The size of the prepared nanoparticles was reduced by Nd-YAG Pulse Laser Ablation (PLA). The characterization of the TiO2 Nanoparticles in two phases was carried out by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to investigate the phase structure. The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) result shows the particle size of nanoparticles after laser ablation less than 10 nm. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to obtain the surface morphological studies Results showed that anatase was the only phase in titanium oxide powders up to 500 °C, when the calcination increased in the region of 900 °C the phase transformation from anatase to rutile occurred in the TiO2 nanopowders. This paper shows a comparison between two phases of TiO2 Nanoparticles (anatase and rutile). Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) to study the vibrational frequencies between the bonds of atoms for synthesized TiO2 Nanoparticles. The Crystalline size of TiO2 Nanoparticles obtained was between (15 -70) nm for anatase at 500 °C and rutile at 900 °C. In FTIR analysis, all the peaks observed were around (400-700) cm-1 due to stretching and bending vibrations.

Structural and Optical properties of CdO doped TiO2 thin films prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Ghusson H. Mohammed; Ahmed M. Savore; Mohammed Hadi. Shinen; Kadhim A. Adem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 5, Pages 918-931

TiO2 thin films have been deposited at room temperature with different concentration of CdO of x= (0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15and 0.2) wt. % onto glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using Nd-YAG laser with λ=1064nm, energy=800mJ and number of shots=500. The structural, morphological and optical characterizations of as- deposited films were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV–vis transmittance spectroscopy. The Effect of CdO content on these properties was investigated. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction show a polycrystalline film, with tetragonal structure and formation of Rutile phase and many peaks (110), (101), (111) and (211) were appear. In addition, AFM investigation shows no cracks in the formed layer. The optical properties concerning the absorption and transmission spectra were studied for the prepared thin films using an ultraviolet–visible near-infrared spectrophotometer. The results show that the transmittance of the TiO2 film in the visible domain reaches 75%.Optical band gaps were calculated and found to be (3.62, 3.54, 3.45, 3.3 and 3.21) eV for the concentration of CdO x= (0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) wt. % respectively. At 350 nm the refractive index,extinction coefficient and dielectric constant were determined.

Effect of additive of CuO and annealing on the Morphological and Electrical Properties of TiO2 by pulse laser deposition

Sabah N. Mazhir; Ghosoun Hamid Ahmed; Noha. H. Harb; A.Abdallah.A

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 5, Pages 895-907

In this paper, Nano crystalline TiO2 and CuO additive TiO2 thin films were successfully deposited on suitably cleaned glass substrate at constant room temperature, and different concentration of CuO (0,5,10,15,20)% wt using pulse laser deposition(PLD) technique at a constant deposition parameter such as : (pulse Nd:YAG laser with λ=1064 nm, constant energy 800 mJ ,with repetition rate 6 Hz and No. of pulse (500).The films were annealed at different annealing temperatures 423K and 523 K. Effect of annealing on the morphological and electrical were studied. Surface morphology of the thin films has been studied by using atomic force microscopes (AFM). AFM measurements confirmed that the films have good crystalline and homogeneous surface. The Root Mean Square (RMS) values of thin films surface roughness are increased with the increase of annealing temperature. Also, The grain size increases with the increasing of concentration of CuO and annealing. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and the activation energy at temperature ranging from (293-473)K of the as-deposited and films annealed at different annealing temperatures have been studied. The results show that as the film concentration of CuO and conductivity increases, while the activation energy(Ea1,Ea2) decreases. Both, the annealing and composition effects on Hall constant, RH, charge carrier concentration (NH), Hall mobility. Hall Effect are studied. Hall Effect measurements show that all films have n- type charge carriers and the concentration and annealing increases carriers concentration while the mobility decreases .

Synthesis and Study The Dielectric Properties of La-Doped and Undoped Barium Titanate Nanopowders

Sabah M. Ali Ridha; Mojahid Mohammed Najim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 298-306

Lanthanum doped Ba1-xLaxTiO3 (BLT) with ( x = 0.005, 0.015, 0.02, 0.025) and undoped Barium titanate BaTiO3 (BT) nanopowders were synthesized at Room temperature via a semi-oxalate method with adjusting a pH of the solution around (5.5).Crystallization processes and Particles size of prepared powders were studied, measured and calculated by using X-ray diffraction. XRD analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM techniques, and the particles size was found to be about 65 nm. The dielectric properties (real є' and imaginary є" part of dielectric constant) of polymer/BT, polymer/BLT nanocomposites, and UPE (unsaturated polyester resin) samples were studied at different frequencies in the range of (20kHz-5MHz) using LCR meter, while theoretical dielectric constant of the prepared samples were calculated by using Bruggeman rule of mixture. The results of dielectric measurements found that the real dielectric constant and tangent loss of the nanocomposites samples decreases with increasing Lanthanum content.

Fabrication of Tio2 and V2o5 Thin Films by Powder Coating Technique

Mohammed S. Hamza; Alaa Aladdin; Shatha Kazem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 16, Pages 3194-3202

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and vanadium oxide (V2O5) in different mixing percentage
(100, 50, 0)% from them powders as thin film on substrate of glass .the coating
thickness was ( 0.37 ±0.03 μm ).
Thin films were inspection by microphotographs with scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD).
The results showed that thin films was prepared crystalline and also the compound
(tio2, v2o5), and the structure was regular and smooth.

Mechanical and Morphological Properties of HDPE: PP and LDPE: PP Polymer Blend Composites Reinforced with TiO2 particles

Sihama I. Salih; Abdullkhaliq F.hamood; Alyaa H. Abdalsalam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2211-2227

In this research two groups of polymer blends have been prepared First group included (High density polyethylene (HDPE): Polypropylene (PP))While the Second group(included Low density polyethylene (LDPE): Polypropylene (PP)) both groups prepared withpolypropylene of (20% and 80%). From the results of tensile test for the prepared blends it has been showed that the optimum blending ratio was (20%LDPE:80%PP and 20%HDPE:80%PP) which thenreinforced with (2, 5 and 8wt%) oftitanium dioxide (TiO2), particle size (0.421μm). Titaniaparticles were
mechanically mixed with the polymers prior tomelt mixing for better dispersion.
Polymerblend composites were obtained by using single screw extruder. Results showed that mechanical properties increased as titania content increased except elongation.Furthermore the result recorded highest values ofimpact strength and fracture toughness at2%wt TiO2which is 312 Mpa and 572.8Mparespectively,for the polymer blend (20%HDPE: 80%PP) composite and for the polymer blend (20%LDPE: 80%PP) composites the impact strength and fracture toughness are 262.5Mpa and 468 Mpa respectively.The mechanical properties values of 20%HDPE: 80%PP is higher than 20%LDPE: 80%PP polymer blendcomposites. Scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) imagesshowed that there isbonding developed between TiO2 and polymer blends in some regions.

Annealing Effect on the Growth of Nanostructured TiO2 Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)

Sarmad S.Kaduory; Ali A.Yousif; Adawiya J. Haider; Khaled Z.Yahya

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 460-470

In this work, Nanostructured TiO2 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on glass substrates at 300 °C. TiO2 thin films were then annealed at 400-600 °C in air for a period of 2 hours. Effect of annealing on the structure, morphology and optical properties were studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements confirmed that the films grown by this technique have good crystalline tetragonal mixed anatase and rutile phase structure and homogeneous surface. The study also reveals that the RMS value of thin films roughness increased with increasing annealing temperature .The optical properties of the films were studied by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The optical transmission results shows that the transmission over than ~65% which decrease with the increasing of annealing temperatures. The allowed indirect optical band gap of the films was estimated to be in the range from 3.49 to 3.1 eV. The allowed direct band gap was found to decrease from 3.74 to 3.55 eV with the increase of annealing temperature. The refractive index of the films was found from 2.27 -2.98 at 550nm. The extinction coefficient increase with annealing temperature.