Keywords : Karbala
Distribution Pattern of theInternallyDisplaced Persons (IDPs) and Its Impact on the Educational Services in KarbalaUsing Geographic Information System
Engineering and Technology Journal,
2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 152-162
The increase in the number of Internal displacedpersons (IDPs) in Iraq, especially afterthe10th of June 2014 is unprecedented in the modern history of Iraq. This has lasted for a long period without solving the problem fundamentally by returning these peopleto their original regions of residence after providing security and basic services. Their suffering increases daily in the provinces that displaced them for the lack of adequate services, the most important and appropriate housing, health and education despite the long time of displacement which exceeded the year. In addition to the problems resulting from the inability of the system services in these provinces to afford such large numbers of displaced people, been already suffering from many problems, exceeding significantly.
The geographical distribution study of the locations of the displaced and exceeding their numbers within each province is an important and essential step needed to prepare plans to provide basic services to those people in order to alleviate the suffering, and because the continuation of the education process forIDP students is one of the important things to ensure no loss of any year of education in order to preserve their scientific future.
Research began by creating geographic database using geographic information systems software (Arc GIS desktop 10), to represent the number and distribution of displaced in the holy province of Karbala and the number of displaced students in the schools in all stages, and indicates the distribution efficiency of displaced schools in terms of accessibility.
The study concluded that the displaced persons are distributed at rates (68%, 29%, and 3%) in governorate center, al-hindiya district, and ain al-tamur district respectively. The distribution of displaced people in governorate center was at rates (71%, 17%, and 12%) on the district center, Hussainia sub-district and al-Hur sub-district respectively. They were distributed in the al-hindiya district at rates (16%, 34%, and 50%) on the district center and al-jadwal al-Gharbi sub-district and al-khairat sub-district respectively.72% of the Enrolled displaced students joined 544 schoolsin the provincefor the academic year 2014-2015, while eight schools allocated for IDP students havereceived 28% of them only.
Determination The Suitable Locations for Drilling Wells for Irrigation purpose by using Geographic Information System (GIS
Engineering and Technology Journal,
2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 80-89
This study was conducted for the purpose of study and analysis of groundwater in the Karbala Governorate. Relied on a set of data and maps that relate to groundwater, topography and geology of the region in addition to 60 wells were distributed randomly in the region, all of this data has been entered in GIS environment to performance geometric and digital processing for it and completion of the analysis and extract the results from it.After conducting all necessary analyzes has been produced digital map that shows the best places to drill wells for irrigation in the region, depend on the topography of the region, basins and streams, sodium ratio and the proportion of dissolved salts in the groundwater in addition to the depths of those waters.where , the best place to drill wells was selected in the areas which has a little slopes because it contain high proportion of groundwater in addition to the sodium ratio in these areas does not exceed 40%, and this ratio consider good for irrigation, as well as the proportion of dissolved salts which range from 2,000 to 5,000 ppm and Although the height of this proportion , but the nature of the soil in the area and depths of groundwater led to use this water for irrigation , where it was observed that the soil of the region contain a high percentage of sand, in addition to the groundwater depths greater than 5 meter and this led to lack of water and salts accumulate in the plant root zone. Also three-dimensional map has been produced for the aquifer and the depths and thickness of the aquifer groundwater in the area.