Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Photovoltaic


FPGA-Based Single-Phase PV Inverter Using Unipolar and Bipolar SPWM Control Techniques

Murtadha R. Sadeq; Hanan A. R. Akkar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 386-395
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i2.2239

The study presents circuitry modeling and methodology to integrate solar photovoltaic (PV) energy with grid (AC) sources to supplement household appliances during a power cut-off or restricted supply period and alternating charge deep cycle batteries. This paper discusses an FPGA-based Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) generator as a control mechanism for a PV/Battery full-bridge inverter. The inverter's efficacy is expressed as the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) ratio, which must be as low as possible. Various schemes are proposed to reduce THD to generate a more sinusoidal output wave. SPWM is mostly used in industrial inverters. Two SPWM techniques, Bipolar and unipolar, are compared under a variety of Modulation Index (MI) conditions and Carrier Frequency (fc) to analyze the best performance of the full-bridge inverter with less (THD) and smoother output sinewave. The present paper discusses the results of a simulation for a single-phase full-bridge inverter employing bipolar and unipolar SPWM techniques. The output waveform demonstrates that the Unipolar SPWM technique produces less Total harmonic Distortion than the Bipolar method, with THD 45% lower. ISE 14.7 and Matlab 2019 are used to present, simulate SPWM generating code, and implement the design on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which acts as a controller for the Mosfet gates in the full-bridge inverter to constitute a sine wave without changing any hardware configuration in the circuit design. The system implementation of SPWM Pulse generation has been validated on Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA (XC6SLX45) board using VHDL code. The final test on the system design for the SPWM generation program, after synthesis and compilation were finalized and verified on a prototype system.

Programing and Procedure Design of Stand-alone PV System for Clean Energy Home Supply in Baghdad

Sarah A. Al-shammari; AbdulHassan A. Karamallah; sattar J Habeeb

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1164-1173
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.1976

Global demand for energy production is in an increasing trend. However, a gap between energy production and energy demand still represents an industrial challenge. Iraq, like too many developing countries, is an example of such problematic. To tackle these issues, renewable energy could be a valid solution. Renewable energy becomes necessary especially the unique location of the received solar energy and long daylight. Many pieces of research deal with maximum benefit from this condition. This paper discusses the design stand-alone PV system for one home in Baghdad and sizing all components in that system start with energy demand, inverter power, PV, battery bank, and connections with each other by design a simple calculation program. Computational modeling was performed to evaluate different designs. Cost efficiency of system performance based on the domestic market prices was estimated and compared with electrical provide from conventional electrical plants (grid and local generator).

Performance evaluation of Photovoltaic Panels by a Proposed Automated System Based on Microcontrollers

Mustafa Q. Ali; Monaf S. Tapoub; Hayder A. Dhahadc

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 1A, Pages 9-21
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i1A.1634

In this paper, an automated test setup for PV panels using LabVIEW and several microcontrollers (μCs) based embedded systems has been designed, tested, and implemented. This PV testing system has been characterized as fully automated and the only human intervention required is to install the PV panel and to set the required testing conditions. Several PV panels were evaluated and tested, the obtained results showed a high degree of accuracy and conformity with several testing schemes that have been carried out numerically, manually and manufacturer specifications. The designed system is characterized by a high-performance standard with accuracy, precision, and resolution (9 mV / 1.8 mA) that is good enough to test any PV panel of 12 V and 24 V rating. This system can test and calculate the maximum power point for any PV panel operating at any given working condition by applying different amounts of solar irradiance from 0 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 to simulate the amount of solar irradiation at any time and everywhere on earth. This system also mimics the environment temperature by providing ambient temperature ranged from 0 °C to 50 °C to simulate the variation of weather around the year.

Solar Photovoltaic Direct-Driven Air Conditioning System Performance in Iraq

Hashim A. Hussein; Ali H. Numan; Krar M. Kuder

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 7, Pages 984-991
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i7A.477

The present research paper is on photovoltaic air conditioning system using the direct drive method. The experimental system setup arranged in Iraq at Al-taje site at longitude 44.34 and latitude 33.432 during the summer season inside a room. The proposed off-grid system consists of an array of photovoltaic, battery used to store power, PWM (pulse width modulation) charge controller, and DC air cooler. During the examination of the system, proven success of this new type(dc air conditioner ) of client urges Iraq warm conditions as an alternative type used instead of the prevailing types of air conditioners (AC air conditioner )in Iraq which consume large amounts of electrical energy and gets a cooling system for the room full working on solar energy.

Synthesized Cu (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS) thin films and implementation as the active light absorbing material in photovoltaic devices (PVs)

Omar A. Ali; Wasan R. Saleh; Vikas V. Reddy; Jackson Stolle; Cao Meng; Brian A. Korgel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 9, Pages 1753-1760

This review article summarizes our research focused on Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystals, including their synthesis and implementation as the active light absorbing material in photovoltaic devices (PVs). CIGS thin films were prepared by arrested precipitation from molecular precursors consisting of CuCl, InCl3, GaCl3 and Se metal onto Mo/soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates. We have sought to use CIGS nanocrystals synthesized with the desired stoichiometry to deposit PV device layers without high temperature processing. This approach, using spray deposition of the CIGS light absorber layers, without high temperature selenization, has enabled up to 1.5 % power conversion efficiency under AM 1.5 solar illumination. The composition and morphology of CIGS thin films were studied using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the structural formation of CIGS chalcopyrite structure.

Study Optoelectronic Properties of Ag2O Heterojunction Prepered by Thermal Oxidation Technique

Khalid Z. Yahia

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1201-1209

Highly (101)-oriented p-Ag2O thin film with high electrical resistivily was grown by
thermal oxidation (TO) on clean monocrystalline p-type Si without any post- deposition
annealing. From optical transmittance and absorptance data, the direct optical band gap
was found to be 1.4eV. The electrical and photovoltaic properties of Ag2O/Si isotope
heterojunction were examined in the absence of any buffer layer. Ideality factor of
heterojunction was found to be 3.9. Photoresponse result revealed that there are two peaks
located at. 750 nm and 900nm .

Study Optoelectronic Properties of Ag2O Heterojunction Prepered by Thermal Oxidation Technique

Khalid Z. Yahia

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 570-578

Highly (101)-oriented p-Ag2O thin film with high electrical resistivily
was grown by thermal oxidation (TO) on clean monocrystalline p-type Si
without any post- deposition annealing. From optical transmittance and
absorptance data, the direct optical band gap was found to be 1.4eV. The
electrical and photovoltaic properties of Ag2O/Si isotope heterojunction
were examined in the absence of any buffer layer. Ideality factor of
heterojunction was found to be 3.9. Photoresponse result revealed that there
are two peaks located at. 750 nm and 900nm .