Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Sustainability

Characteristics of Eco-Friendly Metakaolin Based Geopolymer Concrete Pavement Bricks

Wasan Ismail Khalil; Qias J. Frayyeh; Mahmood F. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 11, Pages 1706-1716
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i11A.1699

The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility to recycled and reused of waste clay brick and waste plastic as constituents in the production of green Geopolymer concrete paving bricks. Powder of clay brick waste (WBP) was used as a partial replacement of Metakaolin (MK) in Geopolymer binder. Moreover, recycled clay brick waste aggregate (BA) and plastic waste aggregate (PL) were incorporated as coarse aggregate in mixtures of Metakaolin based Geopolymer concrete (MK-GPC) pavement bricks. Six types of mixtures were prepared and cast as pavement bricks with dimensions of 150×150×100 mm. All samples have been tested for compressive strength, water absorption and abrasion resistance at age of 28 days; and compared the results with the requirements of Iraqi specification No.1606-2006. The MK-GPC pavement bricks present a compressive strength of 31-47MPa, water absorption of 3.66% to5.32% and abrasion resistance with groove length between 21.78mm to 18.91 mm. These types of pavement bricks are classified as a medium to light capacity for weight loading, and it is possible to be used in wide range of paving applications, especially in aggressive wearing environment.

Criteria for Sustainable Planting Design Applications in Landscape Architecture Projects Under Arid Conditions

Abdullah M.F. Ghazal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 10-18
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.3

Planting design is an important part of all Landscape Architecture projects (LAps). It needs new criteria in order to make it more sustainable. When arid conditions are dominant, these criteria will be more difficult. These limiting factors of harsh environment and aridity, such as high temperature and evaporation, low rainfall, poor and sandy soil, are largely diverse in many levels concerning water, soil, and climate. Thus they clearly appear in designing and impeding sustainable LAps. The planting design in LAps is governed by three major factors which are: plant species, water availability, and the control soil property and climate conditions. However, the designer can adjust and customize these designs aiming at satisfying sustainability principles by carefully selecting plant materials from native or exotic plants and dealing with new practices effectively within the landscape, such as managing water supplies, irrigation methods, plant water requirement (PWR), modifying soil properties to be more efficient, appropriate to hold water, and developing the planting design techniques to restrain aridity conditions. This study adopted field and environmental analyses of real projects to reach new criteria for planting design in LAps that are able, by increasing the functional and environment.

Restoring the Local Heritage and its Role in Sustainable Spatial Development the Great Market in Al-Najaf – a Case Study

Wahda Sh. Al-Hinkawi; Baneen A. Al-Saadawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.8

Regional and local changes in Iraq have led to an accelerated dynamic of comprehensive development without the preservation of local heritage, which caused the loss of many traditional buildings, changing their urban fabric, the emergence of contradictory architectural styles, and others without a clear and specific identity, causing visual deformation. The research problem was identified from the goals and principles of urban design that concerned with the conservation, restoration, and continuity of heritage context, activates their role in sustainable development programs and as a response to changes and radical shifts in spatial structures of city centers, and the social and economic changes, as; “the lack of clear indicators for the restoration of local heritage and its role in achieving spatial development”. The paper will present an analytical study of international and Arabic leading experiences, in the processes of preserving and restoring local heritage, as an important policy in the development and sustainability of places, and try to assess the local experience, according to the indicators derived from them, conduct recommendations for developing the methodologies and policies of restoring local heritage, that suit with the identity and privacy of historical and heritage contexts

Sustainability for Heavy Engineering Equipment Industries Using Lean Concepts

Luma A. H. Al-Kindi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 4, Pages 739-753

Steel is one of the most used materials in the industry. In particular, Steel is the dominating material used in the fabrication of heavy engineering equipment. It is estimated that the world’s annual production of Steel is 1500 Million tons. One of the best ways to reduce such environmental hazard is by recycling of Steel. Recycling of Steel is widely implemented and in terms of tonnage Steel is the most recycled material in the world. Currently, it is estimated that 85% of annual steel production is recycled worldwide. Sustainability benefits of recycling steel include conserving valuable natural resources and raw materials and eliminate negative environmental effects. However, in many cases, handling and transportation of scrap steels to recycling facilities and locations may not be feasible due to many reasons such as transportation cost, scrap bulky sizes and shapes, or scrap quantities. Therefore, in such cases Steel scrap presents a real problem to relevant industries; heavy engineering equipment industries present an example of suffering industries.
Lean Manufacturing is one of the best ways to run a manufacturing company and Lean principles have been successfully applied in many industries in the last two decades or so.
In this paper a “Road Map” for a heavy engineering equipment company is suggested to make use of huge amounts of steel by recycling. A case study is selected to be on one of the Iraqi Ministry of Oil Companies. The aim is to develop and apply Lean concepts to reduce and eliminate Steel scrap accumulation. The paper takes into consideration the actual accumulated Steel scrap resulting from the company processes for ten years. The results of the paper show that applying of the Lean concept will beneficially lead to reducing the accumulated scrap over the years and accordingly save a lot of resources. The conclusions demonstrate that sustainability is fruitful to be adopted in this area.

Assessing New Product Sustainability Index (NPSI) by Integrating Sustainability Aspects into the Early New Product Design Stages

Abdulamir Bektas Wali; Mahmoud Abbas Mahmoud; Jamal Nasir H. Al Khatib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 10, Pages 1677-1695

Product design is one of the most important stages in the new product development
process influencing global sustainability. However, the early design strategy offers the
highest impact on sustainability, the need for using sustainable proactive approach in
early design decisions could be the effective tool to achieve sustainability of new
products. This paper presents a necessity of considering the sustainability aspects in
pre-specification stages of new product design process, and introduces a modified
methodology for establishing a single Index termed as New Product Sustainability
Index (NPSI) which enables the designers to carry out a quick analysis of the
alternatives of new product designs and make choices based on various criteria. The
index aggregates (TBL) and R & D aspects of different types of quantitative and
qualitative indicators and information objects from a product manufacturing point of
view, into one single index. The sustainability matrix, aspects and criteria used in
evaluating of (NPSI), is constructed in table form.