Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Lead


Analytical Study of Affecting Gasoline Quality Properties on Environment and Its Conformity with Specifications

Dhuha K. Ismayyir; Lamyaa M. Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2A, Pages 306-315
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i2A.1745

Gasoline is an important fuel in human life, but it is also responsible for deteriorating Ambient Air Quality (AAQ) through fugitive and exhaust emissions. In this study, chemical properties (Sulfur and Lead content) of gasoline production at Al-Daura refinery were verify based on a statistical quality control tool. Gasoline samples were examined in January/2011 and compared with samples examined in January/2019. In this study, it was concluded that the average production process and process variability for Sulfur content and added Lead value are stable. In January/2011 Sulfur content conforms to Iraqi and European standard specifications, but Lead value doesn’t conform to Iraqi standards, where internationally the use of lead to enhance engine performance has been banned since the 1970s of a century ago because it’s large dangerous on the environment. In January/2019 Sulfur content conforms to Iraqi standards but doesn’t conform to European standards specifications. The addition of lead to gasoline is stopped in 2016; imported gasoline was used by blend it with produced gasoline at al Daura refinery to raise its quality. Gasoline quality properties must be improved and tighten up according to international standards to save our environment.

Heavy Metals Content in Several Imported Rice Crops (Oryza sativa) from the Local Markets

Basim H. Faraj; Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly; Athmar A.M. AlMashhady

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 109-112
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.17

Rice crop may be subjected to several heavy metals contamination due to various causes such as contaminated irrigating water, fertilizers containing certain heavy metals and other agricultural applications. This work was designed to examine several heavy metals (Lead, Chromium, Arsenic and Copper) in rice crop imported from India, USA, Brazil, Thailand, Paraguay and Uruguay in addition to locally cultivated rice. Rice samples were collected from local markets and subjected to the examination of above heavy metal content using acidic digestive method and heavy metal ions were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. It has been found that these examined rice crops have shown significant variations in terms of heavy metal content and importing countries where in case of Lead ion, Iraqi rice had the highest mean (19.27 ± 0.25 mg/kg ) content while India 1 showed the lowest (9.51 ± 0.08 mg/kg) mean value. For rice Chromium content, it was found that USA rice gave the highest (4.02 ± 0.51 mg/kg) mean value and the lowest mean content (0.15 ± 0.02 mg/kg) was detected in the Iraqi rice. Regarding rice Arsenic content, all examined rice crops had As content varying from minimum mean value of 0.2 ± 0.012 mg/kg in India2 to a maximum value of 0.37 ± 0.021 mg/kg in India1. For Copper rice content, this study has found the Iraqi crop had the highest (4.50 ± 0.07 mg/kg)

Assessment of Toxic Levels for Lead in Soil of Al-Waziriya Region, Baghdad

Mahmood .R.M. Al-Qaysi; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al Obaidy; Muna Aziz Rahi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 13, Pages 3157-3165

Lead (Pb) concentration in urban soils was measured in AL-Waziriya District in Baghdad city for both; an industrial area of batteries industry and the residential area around it which may be affected by the emissions caused by production processes of the industrial activities.
A hundred samples were collected from the top soil and analyzed for Pb concentration using Adsorption Spectrometry method.
Geostatistical methods were used to study spatial structure distribution of Pb in this area besides using environmental indices (Geoaccumulation index Igeo and single potential ecological risk factor Ei) to evaluate contamination degree in the region. Results showed that the examined sites are quite large in which Pb concentration values higher than the world regulatory values regarding soil pollution with it and identifying hot-spot areas. These polluted areas could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future.

Lead Content in Two Vegetable Species Collected from Several Local Markets

S.A.K. Al-Hiyaly; J.A. Al-Tamimi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 39-46

This study was designed to assess lead content in soil and two vegetable species collected from several sites in Baghdad. The results showed that Swiss chard had lead content varied from 0.930 ± 0.23 µg/g to 1.988 ± 0.42 µg/g and these data were higher than those found in celery which ranged from 0.216 ± 0.08 µg/g to 0.935 ± 0.22 µg/g.
In case of celery plants cultivated in both Al- Autyfia and Al- Qanat sites, lead content has been found to be affected significantly ( P≥ 0.5) by the distance from motor road where higher content was found in plants closed to motor verge than those 15 meter away. For soil lead content, the results showed that lead content was almost two times greater than those of vegetable plant and again lead concentration was affected by the distance from the motorway verge in both sites where lead content varied from 1.512 ± 0.42 µg/g to 2.279 ± 1.04 µg/g and from 2.102 ± 0.82 µg/g to 2.656 ± 0.62 µg/g in Al- Autyfia and Al- Qanat samples respectively. However, these data in celery plants ranged from 1.389 ± 0.36 µg/g to 1.607 ± 0.88 for Al- Autyfia and from 1.359 ± 0.68 µg/g to 1.582 ± 0.92 µg/g for Al- Qanat cultivated yard.

Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Determination of Vanadium, Nickel And Lead In Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils

Bashar H. Qasim; Mais A. Mohammed; Mahmood M. Barbooti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 17-28

The present work is a part of a project on the environmental site assessment of
a local petroleum refinery to evaluate the extent of pollution of the site with focus
on selected places of potential pollution. Soil samples were collected at various
depths from almost all locations including: production units, storage tanks, the
landfill lagoons at the outside boarder of the refinery and the residence location.
The analyses of vanadium, nickel and lead were carried out on extracts of the soil
samples made by five different dilute solutions of acetic acid, nitric acid, calcium
chloride, EDTA. The nature of the solvent is a determining factor in the efficiency
of transport of heavy metals from the soil into the solution. All of the
measurements were conducted by graphite furnace atomic absorption
spectrophotometry.
It was concluded that heavy metals are available even for the weakest extracting
solvent. This was an indication on the nature of the V, Ni and Pb, where they are
in inorganic forms due to the degradation by the microorganisms of the soil and
aided by dozens of raining seasons and severe hot summers of Iraq. However the
soil keeps some of the heavy metals in the original organo-metallic nature which
resulted in only partial extraction of these metals with the solutions employed.
Thus, the danger from these metals is limited due to their insolubility in water.
The range of vanadium detected in the various extracts is ; for nickel, the range
was and for lead the concentration range was . The V contents were in the range of
0.01 – 0.37 mg/Kg. The Ni content ranged between 0.06 and 4.5 mg/Kg. The
range of Pb contents obtained was in the range of 0.025 – 22.5 mg/Kg. The V and
Ni concentrations at the deep soil samples were less than that of the surface
samples in most locations. Meanwhile, the penetration of lead contamination
seems easier than V and Ni.