Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Cluster Analysis


Quality Assessment of Various Local Bottled Waters in Different Iraqi Markets

Alhassan H. Ismail; Adnan Zowain; Enas KH. Sufar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 5, Pages 660-677

Fifteen local bottled waters brands (Best-selling brands) purchased randomly covering nine Iraqi governorates were analyzed for various physico-chemical as well as bacterial water quality parameters. The obtained results were compared to national and international water standard for drinking water as well as to the reported label values of the bottled water. Results showed that the majority of bottled water met the different drinking water quality standards for physico-chemical parameters except for calcium (one brand at Baghdad), magnesium (Ten brands at all studied governorates except Basrah) and total alkalinity (Two brands at Baghdad and Duhok). All bottled water brands showed negative growth for fecal coliforms, total coliforms and heterotrophic plate count at 37◦C. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of bottled waters samples are of calcium–magnesium chloride and some sulfate type (Ten brands) and the other water type are of calcium–magnesium bicarbonates (Five brands). Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify bottled water brands with similar properties and results distinguished five groups of brands. Comparison of the study results with reported label values indicated considerable variation for pH, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, TH, TA, TDS, EC and SO4.