Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Adsorption

The Use of Inexpensive Sorbents to Remove Dyes from Wastewater - A Review

Firas Ahmed; Adnan A. Abdul Razak; May A. Muslim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 498-515
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2281

Dyes are utilized in various industrial applications, and some businesses' effluents include hazardous dyes. Humans, aquatic creatures, and the environment are all harmed by dyes. As a result, adequately treated dyes that manage wastewater must be before being discharged into nearby bodies of water. Adsorption has proven to be high and cost-effective in removing dyes from wastewater. The sorbent material for dye removal from industrial effluent is activated carbon, but its high cost limits massive-scale utilization. The use of cost-effective adsorbents for wastewater discharge dye elimination is discussed and analyzed in this paper. This review underlines and displays a preview of these IASs, including natural, industrial, and made-up materiality/wastes and their utilization in removing dyes. Experiments have shown that various inexpensive non-traditional adsorbents lead to effective dye removal. Accordingly, studies dealing with the search for effective and affordable sources from current resources are becoming increasingly crucial for eliminating dye. The excess desire for functional and affordable processing modes and adsorption significance has led to inexpensive alternative sorbents (IASs). The isotherm analysis and adsorption kinetics indicate that Langmuir / Freundlich, besides the pseudo-second-order model, is the most used pattern for convenient empirical adsorption datum. Low-cost by-products from the agricultural, residential, and industrial sectors have been identified as viable wastewater treatment alternatives. They make it possible to remove contaminants from wastewater while also contributing to waste minimization, recovery, and reuse. This review revealed that some IASs, have ratable adsorption capabilities and rapid kinetics, besides having vastly available.

A Review About Preparation and Properties of Biochar and Application Fields in the Environment

Marwa Al Rawi; Ghayda Al Kindi; Jwad K. Al Refaae

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1894-1904
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.1996

Biomass’ pyrolysis process is responsible for producing the biochar charcoal, this process does not incorporate the oxygen, and it is utilized as a soil enhancer for each one of the carbon sequestration, and soil health prospects. Biochar can be defined as a stabilized solid which is enriched with carbon and could remain in the soil for extended period of time. Biochar has been studied as a way of carbon sequestration, and it might be a way used for handling climate change and global warming. It happens due to the processes that are associated with pyrogenic carbon capturing and storages. This review is focused on an overview of biochar preparation and application in the environment, previous studies and Applications. Biochar is prepared from various organic materials such as miscanthus, switch grass, corn stover, and sugarcane bagasse. The method of preparation varies with different temperatures and the discharge of nitrogen gas used for a period of one hour not to mention thermal decomposition at different temperatures of heat (500, 600, 700 and 800oC). The success of its use as a adsorbent material, and in treating the soil from heavy metals, its suitability for agriculture, and the treatment of the liquid leachate from solid waste down into the groundwater, in addition to the treatment of groundwater when the topography of the region differs.

Experimental Investigation of Thermodynamics, Kinetics, and Equilibrium of Nickel Ion Removal from Wastewater Using Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as the Adsorbent

Shurooq T. Remedhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 7, Pages 1047-1061
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i7A.608

In the present study commercial zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in the size of 30 nm were utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of Ni (II) ion from synthetic waste aqueous solution. Adsorption capacity of ZnO for removing Ni (II) ions from aqueous solutions was measured at different pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature and metal ion concentration. Moreover,  adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics were studied to understand  the  nature  and  mechanism  of  adsorption. ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray diffract analysis(XRD),Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The maximum amount of Ni (II) removal were found to be (98.71%) from its aqueous solutions by ZnO nanoparticles which was achieved at the evaluated optimum conditions. The experimental kinetic data were examined using the pseudo-second-order rate model with a high regression coefficient. The adsorption isotherm was well described to the equilibrium data by Langmuir isotherm model (R2=0.990). In addition, the calculated thermodynamic parameters, the standard Gibbs free energy ΔGo, the change in standard enthalpy ∆Ho and the standard entropy change ∆So showed that the adsorption of Ni (II) onto ZnO nanoparticles was feasible, endothermic and spontaneous respectively. The experimental results suggest that ZnO nanoparticles can be used as a potential adsorbent for the efficient removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions than any other adsorbent because an economical and low- consumption energy due to its ambient operation conditions.

Removal Performance Assessment of Dyes in Solution Using Mesoporous MCM-41 Prepared from Iraqi Rice Husk

Najat Saleh; Anaam A. Sabri; Ban S. Abdul Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 207-213
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.4

In this study, mesoporous silica MCM-41 material was synthesized using Iraqi rice husk for the first time, as silica precursor and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. MCM-41 was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Then the ability of MCM-41 as adsorbents were tested to treat dyes as one of the organic pollutants from synthetic wastewater . The adsorption behavior of Gentian violet(GV), Methylene blue(MB) and Congo red(CR) dyes from synthetic wastewater onto mesoporous MCM-41 was tested. Batch adsorption was employed to determine the effects of pH (2-11), adsorbent dose (0.05-1g), contact time (0–200 min), initial concentration (25-300 mg/L) and temperature (293,313,333ͦ K). It was found that MCM-41 has higher potential for adsorption of basic dyes (GV, MB) and lesser for acidic dye (CR) from aqueous solution in batch system .Adsorption isotherms were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models. It was found that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model for GV and CR had the best fit with; on the other hand, the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model had the best fit for MB.

Removal of Reactive Red Dye (Cibacron FN-R) from Synthetic Wastewater by Using Natural Substance

Safaa N.H. Al-Hussaini; Eman A. Mohammed; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 209-213
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.2

Synthetic textile wastewater was simulated by using Cibacron reactive red dye FN-R. Pomegranate peels were used as adsorbents to remove the red dye by applying a continuous fixed bed column reactor system having a filter with a diameter of 30mm and a length of 110mm. The effect of different parameters on the removal efficiency was studied; pH levels (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12), flow rate (27, 45, and 60 ml/min), initial dye concentration (10, 15, 20, and 25 mg/l), and the contact time (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min). It was found that the optimum pH level was within the range of 6 to 6.5. In addition, the removal efficiency was found to increase with decreasing the flow rate and the initial concentration of dye and increasing the contact time. The maximum percentage removal of dye obtained was 90% at pH, flow rate, initial concentration of dye ,and the contact time equal to 6, 27 ml/min, 10 mg/l, and 180 min respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The following equations were found for Langmuir and Freundlich respectively; Y=0.017X + 1.110 and Y=0.810X + 0.083. The corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.961 and 0.994, respectively, indicating that the Freundlich isotherm model being more representing to the data obtained in this study.

Application of Wheat Husk in Color Removal of Textile Wastewater

Mohamed I. Mohammed; Anaam A. Sabri; Eman J. Taha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 296-302
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.15

Adsorption is the most efficient technique used to remove organic pollutants from wastewater. Dyes represent one of the pollutants that may remove by adsorption. The textile industry used dyes for colorization of fibers and always generates a considerable amount of colored wastewater. In present work, the removal of Malachite green (MG) dye pollutant from synthetic wastewater onto mesoporous Wheat husk (WH) was studied in batch adsorption systems. The characterization for the prepared wheat husk was studied by, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The batch experiments were carried out to measure the removal efficiency of MG as a function of contact time, initial concentration (25- 135mg/L), pH (2-13) and adsorbent dose (1-7 g/L). The equilibrium was achieved within 8 hours. The equilibrium adsorption data of MG dye on wheat husk adsorbent were analyzed using isotherm models and the adsorption kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first and second order. The adsorption isotherm results indicated a better fitting obtained by the Langmuir (R2=0.995) than Freundlich (R2= 0.883) and the adsorption formation of the monolayer could be described. Adsorption Kinetic results were fitted better by Pseudosecond order(0.9886) than Pseudo first order (0.984). The properties obtained make WH an ideal adsorbent for treatment of MG dye from wastewater, besides, to develop some environment-friendly and low-priced material is also the crucial work.

Textile Dye Removal by Activated Date Seeds

Seroor A. Khaleef; Huda T. Hamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 242-247
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.7

The objective of the study was to prepare activated carbon from date seeds (ADS) and use it as a medium for textile dye adsorption. Batch adsorption of reactive green dye showed that dye adsorption depends on the contact time, the dye concentration, and the pH equilibrium. Different concentrations of the prepared activated carbon were used with different dye concentrations and evaluated for dye removal efficiency. The maximum dye adsorption in this study was achieved after 270 min at a pH range of 5-9. In this study, the functional groups in the prepared ADS were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) while the crystal size was determined using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equation were used to study the adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and dye desorption while the pseudo-second-order kinetics was used to analyze the equilibrium adsorption data of the reactive green dye on the prepared ADS. The dyes’ adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, which is adjudged as the best in adsorption studies. The equilibrium data were best fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model. Conclusively, the adsorption of dye onto the prepared ADS was observed to be an endothermic physical adsorption process.

Removal of Cobalt (Co(II)) from Aqueous Solution by Amino Functionalized SBA-15

Anaam A. Sabri; Talib M. Albayati; Dalia B. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 7A, Pages 703-708
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.7A.1

Mesoporous silica SBA-15 material was synthesized and functionalized by post synthesis method with amino functional group (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane) to investigate its potential use as an adsorbent for cobalt (Co(II)) removal from aqueous solution. Several characterization methods were used for identifying the material characteristics before and after functionalization, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted and different variables that affected the removal of cobalt ions were studied, such as pH (1-6), contact time (0-150min), initial concentration (20-120mg/L) and adsorbent dose (0.025-0.3g). It was found that amino functional group was very effective in increasing the percentage removal of (Co(II)) as compared with non-functionalized SBA-15. The percentage removal of these ions were increased with the increasing of pH (up to 5), contact time and NH2-SBA-15 dose, while the increase of the initial concentration of Co(II) ions led to decrease in it.

Removal Lead and Cadmium Ions in Industrial Wastewater Using Graphene Nano Sheets

Faris Haamoodi AL Ani; Alaa Hussein AL Fatlawi; Gassaq Ahmed Taher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 9, Pages 1903-1914

Industrial wastewater effluents especially that contain heavy metals considered a foremost problem of water pollution in the worldwide environment. Discharging this wastewater,that contains considerable heavy metals' concentrations into ground, water or streams and rivers causes deterioration of the ecological system.The present study aimed to synthesized the graphene nano sheets by electrochemical methodand used for removal of lead Pb+2 and Cadmium Cd+2 ions that found in industrial wastewater. Graphene nano sheets synthetic in this study is characterized by X-ray diffraction XRD, scanning electron microscopy SEM,Raman spectroscopy and Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectra (FT-IR).The abundant oxygen-containing functional groups on the surfaces of graphene nanosheets and strong surface complexion played an important role in (lead and cadmium ions) adsorption. Adsorption properties for (lead and cadmium ions) on graphene nanosheets were regularly investigated, including contact time, pH effect, adsorbent doses and initial concentrations for lead and cadmium solutions. The experimental data were evaluated by Langmuir, Freundlich models in order to describe the equilibrium isotherms. From the adsorption isotherms, the maximum adsorption capacities of lead ions on graphene calculated from Langmuir model were equivalent 476.19 (mg/g) at pH 6.2 and equilibrium contact time 35 min with adsorbent dose (40mg/L), and 188.679 (mg/g) at pH 5.2 and equilibrium contact time 40 min with adsorbent dose (20mg/L) for cadmium ions. The results of the present study demonstrated that graphene has respectable qualifications to removal (Pb+2&Cd+2 ions) which found in industrial wastewater as compared to other adsorbents e.g. activated carbon.

Compared the Efficiency of Two Methods (Chemical and Biological) for Removal (Cadmium, Copper and Zinc) from Contaminated Water

Muntaha N. Althweni; Jenan H. Mohammed; Mayami H. Awad; Teba S. Ganee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 4, Pages 100-107
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112942

In the present study two methods were used to compare the efficiency of removing heavy metals (cadmium, copper and zinc) from contaminated water, and by applying the method of adding a chemical polymer dynamically (Alginic acid) and the method of adding a biological pure culture type of (green algae), different concentrations, respectively (1.0, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 ppm) was prepared for each element. Both of these methods have been applied and the same working conditions of temperature and pH of the time (72 hours), and then detect the level of residual concentrations of the elements mentioned using Flame atomic spectroscopy technique for measuring the absorbance. The results showed that the two methods effective in drag tested with the superiority of biopolymer algae free in reducing cadmium and copper. While convergence efficient ways to remove the zinc from aqueous media contaminated.

Removal of Ni (Ii) and Cd (Ii) Ions From Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on to Synthetic Zeolite

Alhassan H. Ismail; Zainab Ali Abd-aljaleel; Ali S. Jaffer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 8, Pages 1497-1507

In this study, the removal of Ni (II) and Cd (II) ions from aqueous solutions using the adsorption process onto synthetic Zeolite has been investigated as a function of initial metal concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. In order to find out the effect of temperature on adsorption, the experiments were conducted at 20, 30, 40, 50 °C and 15, 30, 50 °C for Ni (II) and Cd (II) respectively. Kinetics data show that at higher temperatures, the rate of adsorption on the synthetic Zeolite is much higher compared to that on the lower temperatures. The optimum pH for Ni (II) and Cd (II) removal is found out to be 5.5 and 6 respectively. The batch method has been employed using initial metal concentrations in solution ranging from 25 to 100 mg/l for Ni (II) and from 10 to 25 for Cd (II) at optimum pH. An Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used for measuring the heavy metal concentrations before and after adsorption. Langmuir, Freundlich, models were applied to adsorption equilibrium data to find the best amongst these models. This study has demonstrated that Zeolite was capable to remove 90% of nickel and cadmium from solution of different concentrations. This implies that Zeolite is an important in the removal process. These capabilities of Zeolite could lead to development of a viable and cost effective technology for removal of these pollutants from wastewater for countries like Iraq.

Investigation of the performance of a Solar Powered Adsorption Heat Pipe

Abdual Hadi N. Khalifa; Asaad T.AL-Omran; Aedah M.Jawad Mahdy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 17, Pages 2937-2950

An adsorption heat pipe was designed and built from a stainless steel tube of 32
mm outer diameter, 30 mm inner diameter and 1000 mm long, the inner surface of the
tube was coated by 10 mm thickness of active carbon, which was assumed to be the
adsorbent, while the adsorbent was assumed to be the methanol, or acetone. The
adsorption heat pipe consist of three zones, namely adsorption/ desorption, adiabatic
and evaporation/condensation zones. Electrical heater with variables capacity is used to
heat up the unit generator during desorption process, water was used to cool the
condenser, while air was used to cool the generator. Two types of adsorption pair are
used, namely active carbon-methanol and active carbon-acetone. The effect of heat
input to the generator on the heat pipe surface temperature and evaporator temperature
are studied. The results showed that the adsorption heat pipe can work at a relatively
low temperature namely 70-100 oC, the time required for cooling process in the range
of 18 to 24 minutes, and activated carbon – Acetone pair gave a good behavior for the
heat pipe due to the short cycle– time compared with that for activated carbon –

Adsorption of Direct Yellow 4 Dye on the Silica Prepared from Locally Available Sodium Silicate

Sameer Hakeem Kareem; Manal Obeid Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 15, Pages 2609-2625

In this study the ability of removing direct yellow 4 dye (DY4) from aqueous solutions using silica as adsorbent was examined. The silica was prepared from locally available sodium silicate. The effect of various experimental parameters contact time, amount of silica used, pH, ionic strength and temperature were investigated in a batch adsorption technique. The obtained experimental data shows that, the adsorption of direct yellow 4 dye was increased directly with increasing concentration, amount of silica, added sodium chloride and temperature in optimum pH (7) and equilibrium time of 45 min. The kinetic data were analyzed through pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo second-order model best represented adsorption kinetics. Additionally, this study used the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms to describe equilibrium adsorption and calculating thermodynamic values. The equilibrium adsorption of direct yellow 4 on silica is best fitted in the Langmuir isotherm (R2 =0.981).

Removal of Iron (II) from Wastewater by Locally Prepared of Activated Carbon

Luma H. Mohmoud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 344-353

The use of low-cost activated carbon derived from reed, an agricultured waste material,
has been investigated for the removed of Fe (II) from wastewater, using batch method. The
influences of the weight of adsorbent (0.2-2) g, pH of solution (1-9) and initial Fe(II)
concentration (10-80) mg/l have been studied. The suitability of the activated carbon used
was tested by fitting the adsorption data with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The
study showed that the adsorption data obtained are obey the Freundlich isotherm fitting.

Removal of Heavy Metals Using Chemicals Precipitation

Balasim A. AbiD; Mahmood M. BrbootI; Najah M. Al-ShuwaikI

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 595-612

The single component and multi-component hydroxide precipitation and
adsorption were studied for different heavy metals namely Iron (III), Chromium
(III), Copper (II), Lead (II), Nickel (II), and Cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions.
By using the jar tester Magnesia (MgO) was used as a precipitator at different
doses and compared with other chemicals like lime (CaO) and caustic soda
(NaOH). The treatment involves the addition of either magnesia or lime-water
suspensions (combined with cationic polyelectrolyte, CPE) in various doses, 1.0 –
5.0 g/l for the metal samples to study the effect of varying doses on the treatment
efficiency. The results show that the percent removal of metal ions increases to
about 99 % with increasing the MgO dose to some limits. The optimum values of
MgO doses were found to be 1.5-3.0 g/l. The pH value ranges are 9.5 to 10 with
MgO precipitant and pH of 11.5 to 12 with CaO precipitant. In the jar experiment
the rotation speed, N, 180-200 rpm, (G of 460-480 s-1) of mixing for two minutes
was the most favorable speed of rapid mixing and the slow mixing speed of 15-30
rpm, G of (14-35 s-1), for twenty minutes gave the best results.At the best operating
conditions of the pilot plant, the removal efficiency of metal ions was more than
97% at doses of MgO (1.0-4.0 g/l).

Fluoride Removal from Aqueous Solutions By Adsorption with Coal Ash

Neran K. Ibrahim; Shaymaa H. Khazaal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5771-5781

Dynamic adsorption studies were performed to study the suitability of coal ash to remediate fluoride-contaminated water. A series of experiments were conducted with aqueous solutions containing 2.5, 5, 10, 50 and100 mgF-/ℓ at 29 oC in a column packed with 500g of coal ash. The flow rate through the bed was 2 mℓ/hr. The effects of contact time, initial adsorbate concentration and sorbent particle size range on fluoride removal efficiency were studied. Better removal efficiencies were obtained with lower particle size ranges. The F- concentration in
the effluent gradually decreased reaching 0 mg/ ℓ after 96-168 hours depending on the initial adsorbate concentration. The kinetic results showed that defluorination follows first order kinetics. An empirical formula was proposed to describe the relationship between the fluoride removal efficiency and the dependent operating variables with 95% confidence level.

Removal of Cadmium(II) Onto Granular Activated Carbon And Kaolinite Using Batch Adsorption

Jenan A. Al-Najar; Ramzy S. H; Zaydoon M. S

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 10, Pages 2070-2080

The removal of Cd(II) onto granular activated carbon (GAC) and kaolinite in single
component systems has been studied using batch adsorption. Batch adsorption studied were
carried out under various amount of GAC and Kaolinite, Cd(II) ion concentration, pH and
contact time. The experimental data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-
Peterson isotherms. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of Cd(II) was determined from
Langmuir isotherm equation and found to be 3.002 mg/g for GAC and 1.837 mg/g for
kaolinite. Pore diffusion model for batch adsorption is used to predict the concentrationdecay
curve for adsorption of Cd(II) onto GAC and kaolinite.

Study the Adsorption Phenomena of Phenol from Industrial Wastewater using Commercial Powdered Activated Carbon by using Isotherm Models

Khalid Farhod Chasib Al-Jiboury

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 6, Pages 1186-1195

Adsorption studies for phenol removal from aqueous solution onto commercial
Powdered Activated Carbon were carried out. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies
were carried out under varying conditions of contact time, initial phenol concentration,
adsorbent dose and pH. The adsorption of phenol increases with increasing initial
phenol concentration and decreases with increasing the solution pH value. The
equilibrium data in aqueous solutions was well represented by the Langmuir and
Freundlich isotherm models. Kinetics of adsorption followed a first order rate
equation. The studies showed that the Commercial Powdered Activated Carbon
can be used as an efficient adsorbent material for the removal of phenolics from
water and industrial wastewater.

The Use of Local Sawdust as an Adsorbent for the Removal of Copper Ion from Wastewater Using Fixed Bed Adsorption

Nagham A. Ageena

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 224-235

The aim of the present work is to study the removal of copper ion presents in
industrial waste water using the local sawdust.
Adsorption column was utilized in the removal process at constant temperature.
The effect of the concentration of copper ion in the range (100-500) mg/L was
studied. Increasing the inlet ion concentration increases the slope of the breakthrough
curve. The effect of bed height in the range of (10-30) cm on copper ion
adsorption from wastewater was studied. The increase in bed height increases the
break point values. The effect of flow rate in the range (0.5-1.5) cm3/sec on copper
ion adsorption also was studied. Increasing the flow rate decreases the breakthrough
time. The best operating conditions in this work for copper ion adsorption
are 100 mg/L of feed, 30 cm bed height and 0.5 cm3/sec feed flow rate. It was
found that the equilibrium relation agrees with Langmuir & Freundlich equations.
Finally accumulation adsorption of copper ion at different operating conditions
was calculated.

Removal of Heavy Metals From Waste Water By Date Palm Tree Wastes

Layla A. A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 119-125

Wastes of the Iraqi date palm tree was used to study removal of heavy metal
cations ( Cu+2, Cd+2& Zn+2) from simulated artificial waste water using batch
adsorption process.
The dried parts of the date palm wastes, were grinded to ≤1mm in size and used
directly in different adsorbent / metal ion ratios, starting with metal ion
concentration of (1000ppm).
Influence of contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent loading
weight, on removal percentage were investigated; experiments were carried out at
room temperature. 25Co and pH value of (5-6).
Date palm wastes succeeded to achieve 90% removal for Cu+2 ions, 57.5% for Cd+2
ions & 37.5% for Zn+2 ions within (60 min) contact time at adsorbent loading ratio
of 30 g/l. Removal values for mixed ions were lower due to competition
&interaction between ions, (80% Cu+2, 51% Cd+2 & 33% Zn+2 )

Removal of Phenol Pollutants by Modification Molecular Sieves 13X

Laith S. Sabri; Jabir Shanshool

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 15, Pages 2853-2862

Molecular sieves type 13X was modified by treatment with saturated solution of urea or thiourea and adding of sodium silicate as binder to give homogeneous admixture in approximate weight percent, 20% urea or thiourea, 30% binder, and 50% MS13X. The samples were dried and shaped in cylindrical particles of about 5mm diameter and 4-8mm length. The FTIR studies show some interaction between the added urea and thiourea with the original substrates. These are mainly hydrogen band type interactions through –NH2 moiety with –OH group of framework oxygen in
the substrate or with adsorbed water. The urea displayed more significant interaction with MS13X than thiourea. Molecular sieve 13X and its admixtures with urea and thiourea showed good ability to remove phenol from water. The urea modified sample, which has the largest surface area, was the best adsorbent for phenol followed by thiourea treated sample. Excellent degree of phenol removal, greater than
98% was achieved by using 0.2 l/h flow rate of 10ppm phenolic solution and 56cm bed length at 300C. The increasing of inlet phenol concentration in water affected largely the driving force and the rate of adsorption, resulted also in higher capacities. While the percentage removal of phenol was decreased by fixed other operating conditions