Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Micro


Modeling Of Micro Hydroelectric Power Plants Utilizing Artificial Falls (Weirs) On Reach of Tigris River-Iraq

Thair Sharif Kayyun; Haider Mohammed Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 11, Pages 2106-2122

Weirs are one of the world wide water resources management structures, which are beside their activity in rising water surface to become important source for electricity by using low head hydropower turbines, it improve the hydraulic and the environment of the river reach.140,000m long of Tigris River reach between Al-Fatha and Samraa cities at Salahaldeen province in Iraq was selected to evaluate the usefulness of constructing system of weirs series by calculating the range of improvements in the hydraulic properties, in the environment and estimating the hydroelectric power potential of the study reach. GIS, Global Mapper (Ver.11) and DEM (digital elevation model) combined with surveyed cross-sections of the river bed were used for the delineation and knowing the number of cross – sections and its area. 30 cross sections were used for river reach in this study. One dimensional and steady flow HEC-RAS model was used .It was calibrated to estimate water surface profiles through a group of equations and to calculate the suitable hydraulic conditions along the study reach. The optimum value of manning coefficient was 0.027. The study area was evaluated and the system of five weirs with heights of (3.7 – 6.0 m) was proposed along the river reach. Their locations depend on trial and error process, geometric of the cross – sections and the ratio of the height of the weirs to the design head. The simulated results by using HEC-RAS model were tested to know the reach behavior against three different discharge values (200, 1242, 8616 m3/s), with return period of 1, 1.15 and 42.50 years respectively, and to compare the hydraulic changes in the study reach before and after installing the weirs and to know the net heads for running the low head hydropower turbines. The results illustrate improvement in the reach hydraulic properties of the river reach. According to the criteria of hydro – power system classifications, the type of hydro – power in this case study was small and the suitable turbine was Kaplan turbine with flow rate of 30m3/sec and with ranges of net heads of (3.29 – 6.08 m). 7 and 41 turbines were chooses for the flow rates of 200 and 1242 m3/sec respectively. The Kaplan turbine is running with very high efficiency below the design flow and with suitable runner diameter. The total estimated capacity of one turbine was (5.38 –7.60 MW) and for seven units, it was (37.66 - 53.20 MW) at one weir. These capacities will cover some of the growth in demand to the electricity in Iraq. It covers about (300, 000) capita of population in the study area. It was found that the maximum cost of the electromechanical equipment for hydro project was 42.91 million US$ .

Optimizing Overcut Parameter of Micro-Holes Machining by EDM Using Taguchi Method

Laith A. Mohammed; Shukry H. Aghdeab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 298-304

In this paper Taguchi method was performed to estimate the optimum overcut parameter for Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) to obtain micro-holes of copper alloy workpieces. Taguchi method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyses the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics and to predict the optimal choice for each machining parameter (current, gap distance and machining time), and analyzed the effect of these parameters on the overcut parameter. The
analysis shows that, the current significantly affects the overcut parameter.

Experimental Investigations of Hole - EDM to Optimize Electrode Wear through Full Factorial of Design of Experiment

Shukry H. Aghdeab; Laith A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 13, Pages 2572-2579

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a process where the material removal of the
workpiece is achieved through high frequency sparks between the tool (electrode) and the
workpiece immersed into the dielectric solution. It is commonly used to produce moulds
and dies, to drill small, burr free holes and to make prototypes for the aerospace and
electronics markets. In this work, micro-holeswere fabricated on copper alloys by using
EDM. The output responses investigated was electrode wear weight (EWW). Full
factorial of Design of Experiment (DOE) module in Minitab was used as a principal
methodology to examine the effects of current and machining time over output responses.
Experimental results indicate that the EWW was mainly affected by current, and can be
reduced by increasing the current parameter. Minimum EWW (0.12gm) obtained at 10A.

Influence of Shape Design of MEMS (Micro-Cantilever Based Sensor) on High-Sensitivity

Ibtissam Mahdi Shihab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 20, Pages 3581-3595

In this paper, a novel analysis was carried out on the biosensor microcantilevers
in order to increase the sensitivity of a micro- cantilever based
biosensor piezoresistive. Holes were made and compared with the basic
rectangular (R), triangular (T), and step(S) profile cantilever. Effect of changing
the micro-cantilevers profile and its cross-section shape was investigated. A finite
element ANSYS was used to analyze these models. The micro-cantilevers are
made of silicon with elastic modulus 130Gpa and poisson’s ratio 0.28. Several
cases were studied by making one, two and three holes in each biosensor
piezoresistive micro-cantilevers (rectangular (R), triangular (T), and step(S) profile
cantilever). Results showed that triangular micro-cantilever with two holes (T22)
has the better sensitivity, also showed T12 respectively 61.7% and 65% higher
sensitivity than R12, S12.

Thin Films Ablation by Induced Forward Transfer Technique

Adawiya J. Haider; Iman H. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 8, Pages 1405-1414

Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is a technique which enables the
controlled transfer of a thin film material from a transparent carrier (donor) to a
receiver substrate (acceptor). The receiver substrate is usually placed in parallel
and close to the thin film source under air or vacuum conditions. In this work
microdeposition of gold (Au) and Copper (Cu) thin films were deposited on glass
substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). These thin films were irradiated by a
single pulse and transferred to a silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) receiver substrates. The
laser source used for this study was a Nd-YAG Q-Switching second harmonic
generation (SHG) Pulsed Laser with a wavelength 532nm, repetition rate 1-6 Hz
,and pulse duration 10ns. Deposited size, morphology and adhesion to the receiver
substrate as a function of applied laser fluence are investigated.