Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : climate change


Electricity Generation from Hydro, Wind, Solar and the Environment

Olumide A. Towoju; Oluwatoyin A. Oladele

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1392-1398
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.2145

Human actions such as electricity generation are contributory causes of climate change. In a quest to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases associated with electricity generation from fossil fuels, the world is turning to renewables. Renewable sources, however, also do have an impact on the environment. Likewise, renewable electricity generation is also dependent on the climate. Hydro, Wind, and Solar are the popular renewable energy sources for the generation of electricity. This work reviews the impact of these renewables in electricity generation on the environment. It also considers the effect of climate change on its use. The construction of renewable electricity generating plants leads to habitat disruptions and can also cause fatalities. Climate change weighs an enormous impact on the performance of renewable electricity generating plants. The recent blackout experienced in Texas as a result of the cold weather is a good example. The end of extreme weather conditions is not yet, and the need to start preparing to prevent a blackout re-occurrence. A possible solution for sustainable renewable electricity generation in extreme weather conditions lies in synthetic fuel availability.

Impact of Climate Change on the Spatiotemporal Distribution of Stream Flow and Sediment Yield of Darbandikhan Watershed, Iraq

Mahmoud S. Al- Khafaji; Rana D. Al- Chalabi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 265-276
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i2A.156

The impact of climate change on stream flow and sediment yield in Darbandikhan Watershed is an important challenge facing the water resources in Diyala River, Iraq. This impact was investigated using five Global Circulation Models (GCM) based climate change projection models from the A1B scenario of medium emission. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to compute the temporal and spatial distribution of streamflow and sediment yield of the study area for the period 1984 to 2050. The daily-observed flow recorded in Darbandikhan Dam for the period from 1984 to 2013 was used as a base period for future projection. The initial results of SWAT were calibrated and validated using SUFI-2 of the SWAT-CUP program in daily time step considering the values of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) coefficient of determination (R2) as a Dual objective function. Results of NSE and R2 during the calibration (validation) periods were equal to 0.61 and 0.62(0.53 and 0.68), respectively. In addition, the average future prediction for the five climate models indicated that the average yearly flow and sediment yield in the watershed would decrease by about 49% and 44%, respectively, until the year 2050 compared with these of the base period from 1984 to 2013. Moreover, spatial analysis shows that 89.6 % and 90 % of stream flow and sediment come from the Iranian part of Darbandikhan watershed while the remaining small percent comes from Iraq, respectively. However, the middle and southern parts of Darbandikhan Watershed contribute by most of the stream flow of the watershed while the parts of lack land cover and steep slopes produce most the sediment.

Comparison of the Trends of Mean Temperature and Rainfall Rate in the City of Samawah (Iraq) with Global Climate Change

Athier Hussin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 168-174
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.27

Increasing earth temperature due to the high level of greenhouse gas has affected the other climate elements on the earth surface. However, there was a little consideration of the differences between the global and local scale of climate change. This research included a comparison between the global climate change and the changes of climate elements that happened in Samawah city. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the increasing annual mean temperature globally and the annual mean temperature in the city. For example, when comparing the increase in annual mean temperature of the city for the period from 2006 to 2015 (ten years) with annual mean temperature globally based on the average of mean temperature for the previous 30 years (1975-2005), we note that there was increasing for the years 2010 and 2011 is almost four times and it was double for the years 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 higher than the increasing of annual mean temperature for the same years globally. Also, the mean temperature of the hot months of the summer season (JJA) in the city increased significantly compared to the rest of the months of the year and it is quite different from the change that occurred in the monthly mean temperature globally. Moreover, the annual average of precipitation in the city has fluctuated significantly due to the changes in climate and contrast to the increase in its global average. All these changes in the climate of the city will inevitably have an impact on the environment such as increasing drought, desertification and dust storms.