Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Improvement

Punching Shear Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Strengthened by CFRP and GFRP: A Review of Literature

Hadi N. G. Al-Maliki; Ali Al-Balhawi; Asma M. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1281-1290
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.2011

Flat reinforced concrete (RC) slabs or plates are still widely used in buildings and are most popular in single or multiple story floor construction systems. This is due to the ease and speed of implementation as well as the continuous smoothness that is provided in relation to the locations of members. Flat slab systems have an inadequate shear strength in both directions. Thus, they are subjected to a shear failure at their intersections with columns, which results in the collapse of a larger part of the structure. Shear failure occurs due to many reasons including changing the functions of the facility, the technical errors in the design and implementation procedures, an increase in the load, deterioration of materials, and poor quality. The carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets/strips and glass fiber reinforced concrete polymer (GFRP) are used as a composite section formulated when there is a structural deficiency. Strengthening by using CFRP and GFRP provide an improvement in the punching shear resistance in both directions as well as flexural strength, ductility, and hardness. They are more suitable for a practical use as a substitute for other costly and difficult approaches such as increase the cross-sectional area of columns and so on. This paper reviews the up to date studies of enhancing the shear resistance of flat slabs by CFRP/GFRP and discusses the used materials for strengthening flat slabs and the used methods, which are used to implement these materials. Also, a summary for the cited studies are stated and the possible future works are suggested.

Improvement of Soft Clayey Soil by Bio-polymer

Teba A. Abd; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Mohammed F. Aswad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 8, Pages 1301-1306
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i8.2053

This examination explains the utilization of bio-polymer powder for clayey soil enhancement. The article concentrates around examining the strength attitude of the clayey soils built up with homogenous bio-polymer. Carboxy methyl cellulose was determined as bio-polymer material to build up the normal soft clayey soil. The biopolymer has been added to the soil with two separated rates (0.5 and 3%) by total weight of soil. Different tests were carried out to consider the impact of utilizing this polymer as a balancing out specialist on the geotechnical properties of soil. It was estimated that as the bio-polymer content expands in the soil, the specific gravity decreases, while the optimum water content (OMC) is expanded. The results showed different effects on Atterberg’s limits; by increasing the liquid limit(L.L) and plasticity index(P.I) while the plastic limit decrease. The tests additionally mirrored a huge improvement in the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the treated soils. With the increment in biopolymer content, the consolidation index (Compression index Cc and recompression index Cr) decrease.

Strength Improvement of Soft Soil Treated Using Stone Columns

Mohammed Y. Fattah; Mohammed A. Al-Neami; Ahmed Shamel Al-Suhaily

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 8, Pages 1740-1756

A total number of 12 models tests were carried out on models of soft clays of different values of undrained shear strength varying from 8 to 18 kPa. The tests consist of twelve models of stone columns, single column, two-column group, three-column group, four-column group, five-column group and six-column group, in addition to one model of untreated soil.
The undrained shear strength has been measured using portable vane shear before testing and after failure of model. It was noticed that the undrained shear strength of model stone columns increased by about (5.6 -20) % due to the construction of stone columns. The provision of stone column in soft clay bed caused an increase in the bearing capacity of the foundation bed by (1.76 - 2.91) times for floating stone columns and (2.13 – 3.15) times for end bearing columns.

Improvement of Ballast Embankment Resting on Soft Clay by Reed and Asphalt Layers

Namir.K.S. AL-Saoudi; Falah.H.Rahil; Kawther.Y.H.AL-Soudany

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3224-3241

The present paper investigates the possibility of using reed and /or asphalt as stabilizing materials for ballast model embankment overlaying a bed of soft soil. Four model tests were performed consisting of a model embankment 500mm base width 300mm crest width and 75mm high. The embankment was constructed on a bed of saturated soft clay 500mm thick with undrained shear strength 16 kPa. The ballast
embankment was gradually loaded up to failure by a model footing 200mm wide and 400mm long placed on the crest with continuous monitoring of the generated settlement. The use reed and/or asphalt along the interface surface between the ballast embankment and the soft soil demonstrated significant improvements in both load carrying capacity and reduction in settlement.