Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : adsorption

A Review About Preparation and Properties of Biochar and Application Fields in the Environment

Marwa Al Rawi; Ghayda Al Kindi; Jwad K. Al Refaae

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1894-1904
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.1996

Biomass’ pyrolysis process is responsible for producing the biochar charcoal, this process does not incorporate the oxygen, and it is utilized as a soil enhancer for each one of the carbon sequestration, and soil health prospects. Biochar can be defined as a stabilized solid which is enriched with carbon and could remain in the soil for extended period of time. Biochar has been studied as a way of carbon sequestration, and it might be a way used for handling climate change and global warming. It happens due to the processes that are associated with pyrogenic carbon capturing and storages. This review is focused on an overview of biochar preparation and application in the environment, previous studies and Applications. Biochar is prepared from various organic materials such as miscanthus, switch grass, corn stover, and sugarcane bagasse. The method of preparation varies with different temperatures and the discharge of nitrogen gas used for a period of one hour not to mention thermal decomposition at different temperatures of heat (500, 600, 700 and 800oC). The success of its use as a adsorbent material, and in treating the soil from heavy metals, its suitability for agriculture, and the treatment of the liquid leachate from solid waste down into the groundwater, in addition to the treatment of groundwater when the topography of the region differs.

Experimental Investigation of Thermodynamics, Kinetics, and Equilibrium of Nickel Ion Removal from Wastewater Using Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as the Adsorbent

Shurooq T. Remedhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 7, Pages 1047-1061
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i7A.608

In the present study commercial zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in the size of 30 nm were utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of Ni (II) ion from synthetic waste aqueous solution. Adsorption capacity of ZnO for removing Ni (II) ions from aqueous solutions was measured at different pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature and metal ion concentration. Moreover,  adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics were studied to understand  the  nature  and  mechanism  of  adsorption. ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray diffract analysis(XRD),Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The maximum amount of Ni (II) removal were found to be (98.71%) from its aqueous solutions by ZnO nanoparticles which was achieved at the evaluated optimum conditions. The experimental kinetic data were examined using the pseudo-second-order rate model with a high regression coefficient. The adsorption isotherm was well described to the equilibrium data by Langmuir isotherm model (R2=0.990). In addition, the calculated thermodynamic parameters, the standard Gibbs free energy ΔGo, the change in standard enthalpy ∆Ho and the standard entropy change ∆So showed that the adsorption of Ni (II) onto ZnO nanoparticles was feasible, endothermic and spontaneous respectively. The experimental results suggest that ZnO nanoparticles can be used as a potential adsorbent for the efficient removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions than any other adsorbent because an economical and low- consumption energy due to its ambient operation conditions.

Removal Performance Assessment of Dyes in Solution Using Mesoporous MCM-41 Prepared from Iraqi Rice Husk

Najat Saleh; Anaam A. Sabri; Ban S. Abdul Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 207-213
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.4

In this study, mesoporous silica MCM-41 material was synthesized using Iraqi rice husk for the first time, as silica precursor and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. MCM-41 was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Then the ability of MCM-41 as adsorbents were tested to treat dyes as one of the organic pollutants from synthetic wastewater . The adsorption behavior of Gentian violet(GV), Methylene blue(MB) and Congo red(CR) dyes from synthetic wastewater onto mesoporous MCM-41 was tested. Batch adsorption was employed to determine the effects of pH (2-11), adsorbent dose (0.05-1g), contact time (0–200 min), initial concentration (25-300 mg/L) and temperature (293,313,333ͦ K). It was found that MCM-41 has higher potential for adsorption of basic dyes (GV, MB) and lesser for acidic dye (CR) from aqueous solution in batch system .Adsorption isotherms were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models. It was found that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model for GV and CR had the best fit with; on the other hand, the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model had the best fit for MB.

Removal of Reactive Red Dye (Cibacron FN-R) from Synthetic Wastewater by Using Natural Substance

Safaa N.H. Al-Hussaini; Eman A. Mohammed; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 209-213
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.2

Synthetic textile wastewater was simulated by using Cibacron reactive red dye FN-R. Pomegranate peels were used as adsorbents to remove the red dye by applying a continuous fixed bed column reactor system having a filter with a diameter of 30mm and a length of 110mm. The effect of different parameters on the removal efficiency was studied; pH levels (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12), flow rate (27, 45, and 60 ml/min), initial dye concentration (10, 15, 20, and 25 mg/l), and the contact time (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min). It was found that the optimum pH level was within the range of 6 to 6.5. In addition, the removal efficiency was found to increase with decreasing the flow rate and the initial concentration of dye and increasing the contact time. The maximum percentage removal of dye obtained was 90% at pH, flow rate, initial concentration of dye ,and the contact time equal to 6, 27 ml/min, 10 mg/l, and 180 min respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The following equations were found for Langmuir and Freundlich respectively; Y=0.017X + 1.110 and Y=0.810X + 0.083. The corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.961 and 0.994, respectively, indicating that the Freundlich isotherm model being more representing to the data obtained in this study.

Application of Wheat Husk in Color Removal of Textile Wastewater

Mohamed I. Mohammed; Anaam A. Sabri; Eman J. Taha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 296-302
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.15

Adsorption is the most efficient technique used to remove organic pollutants from wastewater. Dyes represent one of the pollutants that may remove by adsorption. The textile industry used dyes for colorization of fibers and always generates a considerable amount of colored wastewater. In present work, the removal of Malachite green (MG) dye pollutant from synthetic wastewater onto mesoporous Wheat husk (WH) was studied in batch adsorption systems. The characterization for the prepared wheat husk was studied by, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The batch experiments were carried out to measure the removal efficiency of MG as a function of contact time, initial concentration (25- 135mg/L), pH (2-13) and adsorbent dose (1-7 g/L). The equilibrium was achieved within 8 hours. The equilibrium adsorption data of MG dye on wheat husk adsorbent were analyzed using isotherm models and the adsorption kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first and second order. The adsorption isotherm results indicated a better fitting obtained by the Langmuir (R2=0.995) than Freundlich (R2= 0.883) and the adsorption formation of the monolayer could be described. Adsorption Kinetic results were fitted better by Pseudosecond order(0.9886) than Pseudo first order (0.984). The properties obtained make WH an ideal adsorbent for treatment of MG dye from wastewater, besides, to develop some environment-friendly and low-priced material is also the crucial work.

Textile Dye Removal by Activated Date Seeds

Seroor A. Khaleef; Huda T. Hamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 242-247
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.7

The objective of the study was to prepare activated carbon from date seeds (ADS) and use it as a medium for textile dye adsorption. Batch adsorption of reactive green dye showed that dye adsorption depends on the contact time, the dye concentration, and the pH equilibrium. Different concentrations of the prepared activated carbon were used with different dye concentrations and evaluated for dye removal efficiency. The maximum dye adsorption in this study was achieved after 270 min at a pH range of 5-9. In this study, the functional groups in the prepared ADS were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) while the crystal size was determined using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equation were used to study the adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and dye desorption while the pseudo-second-order kinetics was used to analyze the equilibrium adsorption data of the reactive green dye on the prepared ADS. The dyes’ adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, which is adjudged as the best in adsorption studies. The equilibrium data were best fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model. Conclusively, the adsorption of dye onto the prepared ADS was observed to be an endothermic physical adsorption process.

Study the Dye Decolorization of Wastewater Using Bentonite, H2O2, Ultrasonic and Laser Techniques

A.Z. Mohammed; A. Sh. Hamadi; H.A.M. Redha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 41-45

The bentonite is an adsorbent material that is used frequently in industrial fields. bentonite was used with laser to treat wastewater, when laser is a new technique that has ability to remove the dye. Using of laser as a source to refresh with high efficiency has the important in industrial field.In this study laser diode with power 50 mw, He-Ne laser with power 10 mw and DPSSL with power 500 mw were used with the help of ultrasonic bath and H2O2 to promote the work of the laser. AFM and FTIR testing were made to bentonite to study the characteristics of it. Minitab program was used to facilitate calculations and choose the optimum parameters of experiments. The optimum input conditions of experiments to remove the dye from wastewater were chosen. The best concentration of bentonite is 4 g/l, the best temperature of wastewater is 42◦C, the best time of work is 27 min and the best concentration of H2O2 is 10%. It found from study that the increase of each parameters cause decrease in output concentration of wastewater. The accuracy of work was determined from Minitab program, it was 94.54%.

Treatment of Wastewater from Oil Refinery by Adsorption on Fluidized Bed of Stem Date

M.G. Albarazanjy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 134-138

A fluidized–bed adsorbed system was used to study the removal efficiency of oil and the total dissolved solids (TDS) from on oily wastewater. Adsorption was developed using stem date. The range of oil concentration used was (100-500ppm), and the range of [TDS] was (600  1500 ppm). The effects of flow rate at (18  28 L/min), particle size of stem date (3-5 mm) and bed height (25-40 cm) on the adsorption efficiency of removal were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency reaches high percent about (71%) with decreasing particle size, volumetric flow rate and increasing bed height and initial oil concentration contained in treated wastewater.

Preparation of Biopolymer and to Study Its Possibility to Remove Vanadium from Crued Oil

Muntaha N athewani Abedl Hussin abedoun; Muhanad Zuhair Abdulrahman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 26-32

Syntheses of biopolymer (Alginic acid) was made by reaction of sodium alginate with hydrochloric acid (concs) in aqueous ethanol with ratio (30:70) as adsorption material to remove vanadium from crude oil directly during the purification.
Effect of come factors on adsorption steps by this acid were studied such of time, pH value and concentration.
The capability of this biopolymer for adsorption (in aqueous solution) was known form previous study , and this property become useful to help this work for removing of vanadium from crude oil as take place in refinery. The results also showed that the concentration of Vanadium was decreases with the greater weight of the polymer additive, where focus was before Added 75.0 ppm, while the 67.5 ppm , when adding 0.025g, of polymer. And became (18.75ppm) after the addition of 0.05g of the polymer, Thus results show that whenever the greater weight of the polymer, decreased the concentration of Vanadium.

Influence of Operating Conditions on Adsorption of Lead (II) Ions From Contaminated Water Using Different Adsorbents

Areej Dalf Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 991-1000

Removal of heavy metals from water and wastewater has received a great deal of attention. Adsorption is one of the most technologies being used for treatment of polluted water. This study records lab scale experiments to test efficiency of activated carbon as an adsorbent and comparing it with low-cost naturally occurring materials (sand & egg shells) in removing lead ions from wastewater. The adsorption of lead ions from solutions containing different initial lead concentrations (100, 150 and 200 ppm pb as lead nitrate) using different particle
size (140, 300 and 500 ìm) and different doses of activated carbon, sand and egg shells at different pH (4, 7 and 10) was examined. Also the metal concentration retained in the adsorbent phase (mg/g) was calculated. This method of heavy metals removal proved highly effective as removal efficiency increased with increasing adsorbent dose while it decreased with increasing metals concentration. The results revealed that of the studied adsorbents, the activated carbon showed
the highest adsorption capacity and the maximum adsorption can be obtained by using particle size of 140 ìm in neutral media (pH 7). This technique might be successfully used for the removal of lead ions from liquid industrial wastes and wastewater.

Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloy 7613 by Dimethylethanolamin in (0.6 M) NaCl Solution

Khalid T. Rashid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 684-696

The inhibition behavior of Dimethylethanolamin (DMEA) on corrosion 7613
Aluminum alloy in 0.6 M NaCl solution have been investigated using weight loss,
polarization techniques .Five different concentrations (2*10-3, 4*10-3, 6*10-3 ,
8*10-3 and 10*10-3) M of (DMEA) were studded at 250 C. Also examine of
temperature effect (25, 35, 45)0 C on the inhibitor efficiency .The results indicated
that the inhibition occurs by absorption of inhibitor molecules on the metal surface.
The inhibition efficiency (I %) was found to increase with increasing inhibitor
concentration and decreasing with increasing temperature. For inhibitor
concentration close to (8*10-3 M) maximum inhibition efficiency obtained was 92
%. Above this inhibitor concentration value in the solution the inhibitor efficiency
Polarization measurements showed that the DMEA act as a mixed type inhibitor.
The corrosion potential (Ecorr.) values shifted to less negative values by increasing
the concentration of DMEA in the solution up to (8*10-3 M). Adsorption of DMEA
on the surface of Aluminum is found to obey the Langmuir isotherm

The Study of Typical Conditions to Remove Co from Water by Adsorption by Using Activated Carbon

Shaymaa H. Khazaal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 9, Pages 1691-1700

The effective removal of heavy metal ions from water is among the most
important issues for many industrialized countries. The present work has been
carried out to study the adsorption of cobalt [II] ion using activated carbon.
The removal of cobalt ions was investigated in batch conditions. The influence of
initial cobalt ion concentration, pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbent practical size;
contact time and shaking rate were studied at room temperature. The analysis of
residual Co [II] ions was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
GBC 933 plus. The results showed that the percentage adsorption of activated
carbon increases with time and that maximum adsorption was obtained within the
first 60 minutes of the process, and 300 rpm shaking rate.
The experiments showed that the maximum % adsorption of 100% was obtained
at adsorbent dose=0.4 gm, pH=13, particle size= (0-75) μm and 10 mg/L of initial
concentration of cobalt. These results indicate that activated carbon has potential
for removing cobalt ions from water.

Removal of Phenol From Aqueous Solution By Agriculture Waste

Tagreed Lutfee A

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5938-5955

Using agriculture waste products waste Tea (WT) and activated carbon
waste Tea (WT-GAC) as biosorbent for phenol from aqueous solution was
studied. Adsorption in this way more economical in comparison with other
conventional methods which are usually costly. Batch kinetics and isotherm
studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time,
phenol concentration, adsorbent dose and PH value. It was observed that the
adsorption process is instantaneous and attained equilibrium within 10 minutes for
activated carbon waste Tea and 30 minutes for waste Tea at phenol concentration
(100-600) mg/L. the adsorption of phenol increase with increasing the solution pH
value till pH 7 then it decrease with increasing pH value. The Freundlich and
Langmuir models were used for the mathematical description of adsorption
equilibrium and it was found that data fitted very well to the Freundlich models.

Experimental Study on A Hybrid Adsorption Refrigeration System

Hassan Jawdat Fadiel; Abdul Hadi Nema K

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1790-1800

One of the most new methods of solar applications are the adsorption refrigeration methods, which can be powered by solar energy or waste heat. A hybrid adsorption refrigeration unit was designed, built and tested in this work, on January, 2008. A series of test on the solar collector was achieved to simulate the temperature of hot water that used to heat the unit generator of the field unit. Also from the field adsorption unit using an adsorption pair active carbon and methanol, it was found that there is an optimum generator temperature at which the cycle COP reach max. The cycle COP was varied from 0.07 to 0.3. It was found that it can chill one liter of water from an initial temperature of 35°C also a formation of 1cm thick ice around the evaporator was
obtained, when the mass of active carbon was 1.25kg and methanol concentration of 0.07 kg(meth.)/kg(A.C.).