Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : mechanical properties

Bio and Mechanical Evaluation of an Enhanced Bio Glass

J.T. Al-Haidary; M.N. Arbilei; J.S. Kashan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 65-69

These Tap casting and powder metallurgy methods used to produce the 45S5 Bioglass. This study revealed that the bioglass modified with 0.2% Y2O3 has about 700% increases in hardness. The modification of bioglass with 0.2% Y2O3 leads to a 44% increase in fracture toughness values. This study revealed that the 0.2% Y2O3 bioglass composition-modification improves the fracture strength by almost 150%. The laboratory histological sections showed that 45S5 bioglass (original composition materials showed nether systemic nor local inflammation with new bone formation at site of implantation. The Y2O3 modified the 45S5 bioglass showed no inflammation reactions as well, but no new bone formation and regeneration was noticed in the adjacent bone tissue.

Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Filled With Silica Fume, Glass Powder and Carbon Black

A.H. Majeed; S.Q. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 640-647

In this study a polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have been prepared with the aid of ultrasonic wave dispersion method for mixing , using of unsaturated polyester resin with Silica Fume(SF), Glass Powder (GP)and Carbon Black (CB). Moulds were prepared by hand-made from silicon rubber according to the ASTM standard table (4). The fillers added separately with different ratios as (0%,0.5%, 1%, 1.5 %, 2%,2.5% and 3%).The results show increase the hardness and impact strength when added GP, SF, and CB to polymer matrix. Flexural strength and maximum shear stress decrease when added silica fume , but when added glass powder and carbon black led to increase flexural strength and maximum shear stress to certain percent at ( 2%, 1.5% for GP and CB respectively) then dropped when increase weight fraction of GP, CB . Compressive strength decrease when added glass powder and carbon black, while it is increase when added silica fume to polymer matrix. Wear rate decrease when increase weight fraction of carbon black but it increases when added GP and SF.

Effect of SiC Particulate on Glass Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites in Erosive Wear Environment

R.H. Abdel-Rahim; Z.F. Atya

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 118-123

In this study the physical property, mechanical properties and erosion wear of pure epoxy and hybrid composites were studied. Composites were prepared and investigated by Hand lay-up molding. Pure epoxy and hybrid compositions were prepared, 4% and 8% volume fractions of glass fibers as reinforcement and 4% and 8% of SiC as filler particles. The investigated physical property is density while the mechanical property was hardness. Solid particles erosion wear tests are also carried out. The experimental results showed that increased volume fraction of glass fibers to (8%) led to increase the (density). The maximum density is equal (1.661gm/cm3). Hybrid composite with (Epoxy +8%GF+8%SiC) has the maximum hardness of (82) shore D. The particle-contained water jet type experimental erosion test results that the reinforcement volume fraction as well as particles distribution and bonding has considerable effect on the wear of epoxy composites. It was found that the better resistance was for hybrid composites (Epoxy+8%GF+4%SiC) at angle 30°, erodent size 800 μm, and time 10 hour.

Study the Effect of adding Natural Rubber and Polymethyl Methacrylate to the Epoxy Resin on the Quantitative Analysis and its Mechanical Properties

S.E. Salih; W.M. Salih; M.A. Abdul hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 163-171

From polymer blends can be obtained more useful properties compared with single polymer. In this work, polymer blend (Epoxy (EP): Natural Rubber (NR)) with different ratios of NR (0, 2, 3.5 and 5%wt) and ternary polymer blend with ratio of (Epoxy: 2%NR: 5% wt. PMMA) were prepared. The Mechanical properties were included (tensile, flexural, impact, compression) tests and analytical physical properties (FTIR, SEM) were investigated, and the results show that the elongation values, impact strength and fracture toughness for polymer blend system (Epoxy: NR) were increment with increase natural rubber ratio in the polymer blend system. Whereas fracture strength, young’s modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus and maximum shear stress decreased. The highest values of impact strength and fracture toughness were (0.041KJ/m2) and (0.321 MPa √m) respectively for polymers blend (95% Epoxy: 5% NR). Ductile fracture in rubber modified epoxy may be produce from the elastomeric nature of rubber which is represents an energy dissipating center.

Effect of laser surface treatment on the some of mechanical properties of AISI 4130 steel

J.M. Taha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 85-90

In this work the surface of an alloy of AISI 4130 steel is hardened by using CW Nd:YAG laser and then study the effect of laser surface hardening on mechanical properties such as yield strength (σy), ultimate tensile strength (σu.T.S), plasticity constant (k),strain hardening coefficient (n) , also evaluate the microstructure and microhardness during the hardening of the alloy. CW Nd:YAG laser was used to scan on the surface of samples by varying the laser beam energies (500,750,1000 mj) with travel speed 500 mm/min of the work table. There are many examinations were done for laser hardened of AISI 4130 steel such as an analysis of microstructure features by using an optical microscopy and microhardness. Also tensile test is carried out for the specimens before and after laser surface treatment. The results of this investigation showed that an improvement in mechanical properties after laser surface hardening, also microhardness decreases faraway the hardened surface toward the center of the specimen. While the microstructure examination showed that the laser energy 1000 mj lead to form fine plate martensite structure more than another energies 500 and 750 mj.

The Effect of Thermo-Mechanical Treatment on Mechanical Properties & Microstructure for (Cu-Al-Ni )Shape Memory Alloy

Muna Khethier Abbass; Munther Mohamed Al-Kubaisy; Raad Suhail Ahmed Adnan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2518-2526

This paper aims to study the effect of thermo mechanical treatment in different temperatures of (260 ,280& 300) ◦C on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-14wt%Al-4.5wt%Ni shape memory alloy which prepared by casting method in induction furnace under argon atmosphere. Then thermo –mechanical treatment was performed upon the alloy by applying stress of 190MPa with heating upto 260◦C,280◦C,300◦C, then cooled to room temperature performingstrain recovery measurement. Many tests and inspections such as optical and SEM examinations , DSC Measurement ,XRD inspection , compression and Vickers hardness tests were investigated. The results showed that there is an increase in the transformation temperatures, shape memory limits at 300◦C .It was found that hardness increases and Young modulus decreases Also It was found that the thermo-mechanical treatment at 260 ◦C gave better properties , 2%in recovery strain , increase hardness due to the formation of martensitic phase and austenite phase in structure.

Comparative Study of Influence Post weld Aging on the Mechanical Properties of Similar Friction Stir Welded Joints for Al 2024-T3 and Al 7075-T73

Muna K. Abbass; Munthir M. radhy; Ruqaya Abdulkadhim Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 588-599

The aim of present study is to investigate the effect of precipitation hardening heat treatment at different aging conditions on the mechanical properties and microstructure of similar friction stir welding (FSW) joints ofAA 2024-T3 and AA 7075-T73 aluminum alloys. Friction stir welding was carried out using milling machine with best welding parameters (tool rotation speed 898 rpm, welding speed 45 mm ̸ min and threaded cylindrical pin geometry). Tensile test, microhardness test,microstructure examination,and X-ray radiographic inspection of FSW joints were made.The results indicated that the best aging conditions for similar welded joints of Al2024 and Al 7075 were in sample (natural aging for two week) and sample
(artificial ageing at 120°C for 24 h) respectively. ‏Microhardness in the as-welded samples showed fluctuations across the weld zone and minimum hardnessoccurs in the heat affected zone(HAZ) in both alloys while the hardness after heat treatment at best aging conditions was improved across the whole weldment and increased in stir zone,

Effect of Hydrocarbon Solutions on Polymer Concrete

Sanaa Abdul Hadi; Mustafa Hassan Omar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 234-242

The damaging effect of oil products on concrete besides the high permeability of concretehave made researchers try to improve the properties of concrete exposed to oil products, hence improving the durability and serviceability of oil concrete structures.
Polymer concrete exposed to oil products is one of a new field that deals with the enhancement of concrete durability. In the present work polyester resin concrete was used and then immersed in different types of oil exposure liquids (gasoline, gas oil and kerosene) compared with reference concrete which left in the air.
Polyester resin concrete is used as a new type in this field, it is noteworthy that the use of this concrete gives good test results that raise the values of the mechanical properties, so we did the SEM test in an attempt to study the microstructure of this concrete after soaking for 90 days in oil products.

The Effect of Ferrite Content on the Thermomechanical and Dielectric Strength Properties of Epoxy Composite

Lamees S. Faiq; Zahraa F. Attiyah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 186-192

Different concentrations of cadmium ferrite (2%, 5%, 8%, 10% and 15%) were incorporated into epoxy resin. Cadmium ferrite was prepared by conventional ceramic technique. Composites are prepared by mixing the ferrite with epoxy by hand lay - up method at different percentages. The effect of ferrite content on tensile strength, hardness, thermal properties such thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat beside the dielectric strength were investigated. Using ferrite powders as filler to form particulate composite could lead to composite properties improvement. All the measured properties were improved with the increasing of the filler content. The results showed the important role of perfect adhesion between the filler and the polymer on the composite properties. It is found that the uniform distribution of filler particles in all directions of composite leads to the improved properties.

Comparison OF Shear Properties for High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Poly vinyl Cloride (PVC) Polymers

Shawnim R. Jalal; Delven kareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 9, Pages 2039-2048

The properties that make plastic of direct interest to designers and engineers are its good strength to weight ratio, low manufacturing installation costs, and high durability. The strength of polymers is known to be sensitive to temperature and this generally limits their use under service temperatures. The present work addresses the effect of temperatures ranging from 0 to 70 on the shear properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials. The results show that Yield stress increase with temperature by (15.4%) for HDPE and the temperature has no effect on yield stresses of PVC.
The modulus of elasticity varied in each temperature for both materials selected and the maximum shear strength, however, showed a slight increase in this temperature range by (1.4%) for HDPE but slightly decrease by (2%) for PVC. Shear rupture and elongation reduced by (0.02%) with increasing temperature by (1 °C) for both materials .Ductile fracture is observed to be the controlling failure mechanism at all temperatures of interest for both material and no data were recorded at 70 due to distortion of all specimens in this temperature selected.

Evaluation Mechanical Properties of Polymer Composites Reinforced by different Metal Powders

Sihama Issa Salih; Safaa Nayyef; Alyaa H .Abd Alsalam; Ammar Mousa Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 7, Pages 1348-1360

This research covers reinforcement of unsaturated polyester resin by metal powders, and studying some of their mechanical properties. The samples were prepared by hand lay-out technique. The unsaturated polyester resin was reinforced by two types of metal powders Copper (15.598 µm) and aluminum (21.533µm) at selected volume fraction of (0, 5, 10. 15, 20 and 25 %). The study of mechanical properties includes tensile properties (strength at fracture point, elastic modulus and elongation at at break), flexural strength and flexural modulus, impact properties and hardness. The results show a noticeable increase in values of tensile strength at fracture point and tensile modules of elasticity, as the volume fraction of metal powder increase and reach to maximum value at 15 % volume ratio for both types, where as flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness reach to maximum value at 10 %volume ratio for both types composites, however elongation at break shows decrement as the volume fraction of metal powder is increased for both types composites.

Investigation of Tensile and Impact of Composite Materials Reinforced with Natural Materials

Alaa Abd Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 919-933

This work focuses on studying the effect of Data Seeds (DS) and Olive Seeds (OS) particles on tensile and impact properties of epoxy resin. Olive and dates seeds powder were added to epoxy matrix at weight fraction (0, 8, 13, &18 wt %) with grain size (300, 450 & 600µm). The composite specimens were prepared by Hand-Lay-up technique and cut according to standard test. It's found the higher value of modulus of elasticity and tensile strength happened at (=18 wt %) and grain size (300µm) for specimens reinforced with olive seeds powder, but obtained the lower percentage of elongation at break, impact strength and fracture toughness at this value. Also the mathematical model results show that the weight fraction of powder have higher effect than grain size on properties.

Mechanical Properties for Polymer Hybrid Composites Reinforced by Fibers and Particles

Ruaa Haitham Abdel-Rahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 635-643

The Mechanical properties of hybrid composites based on epoxy resin (ER) filled with metal powders (Al) and Glass fibers (GF) are studied. The specimens are prepared using hand lay-up techniques according to ASTM standard for different volume fractions of fiber, particles& matrix material. Glass fibers (GF) are one of the most useful filler materials in composites, its major use being the manufacture of components in the aerospace, automotive, and leisure industries. The epoxy was reinforced with GF:( metal powders)in the ratio 10%:40%, 20%:30%, 30%:20%, and 40%:10%. It was observed that in the ratio 40%:10% has the maximum(UTS), fracture strength, flexural strength, fracture toughness and hardness increase with the increase of volume fraction of fibers when compared to unfilled epoxy.

Effect of Addition Alloying Elements (Nickel and Cadmium) on Mechanical Properties of Al-Zn-Mg Alloy

Waleed T.Rashid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 12, Pages 410-422

This work is concerned to study effect of addition the cadmium and nickel on mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg alloy. Three alloys were prepared with addition cadmium and nickel (0.5%wt) for each one alloy and added the nickel and cadmium in form combined of percentage (1%wt), as well as to base alloy. The alloys were prepared by melting and pouring in metallic mold. Many inspection and tests have been done such as microstructure, hardness , tensile test and wear test. The results show that addition of cadmium and nickel improved the mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg alloy, where they increase the hardness ( from58.4 to 86.92 kgmm2), tensile strength (from 87 to 107 Mpa) ,yield strength(from 32 to54 Mpa), and decrease the wear rate(from28 to 15.6x10-7gcm) and ductility (from 12 to 8.5%) and microstructure refined .Effect of nickel was more than cadmium, while the addition of nickel and cadmium together improved on improvement the mechanical properties more in comparison with the others alloy.

Effect of Surface Roughness and Shot Peening Treatments on The Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 2024 – T4

Alalkawi H. J. M; Ameer Tofan Shafiq; Mohammed khalouk al-azzawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 10, Pages 2386-2393

The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of surface roughness on mechanical properties of aluminum alloy 2024-T4. This paper describes the effect of surface roughness at values of ( 0.1 , 3.5 , 8 ) μm on hardness and yield strength and also estimate the effect of shot peening on the yield strength at period time of ( 5 , 10 , 15 , 20 , 25 ) min. The obtained results show that the low roughness improved the mechanical properties by 15.7% and also the low roughness is better than the shot peening treatments by 5.3% because the low roughness make surface more coherent. Empirical equations are formulated based on the experimental results to evaluate the yield strength with the surface roughness and the hardness.

Sy= 394.3 ( Ra + 1.35 ) -0.1356
Sy = 1 / 2.2227(10)-2 - 1.32(10)-4 HV

Studying the Effect of Corrosive Liquids on Pipes Properties of Unplastizied Polyvinyl Chloride (UPVC) Which is Used in Sewage Purpose

Ahmad Star Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 15, Pages 329-340

The current study concerns with studying some mechanical and physical properties of different samples taken from Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride (UPVC) pipes used in sewage purpose. Impact strength, compressive strength, shore-D hardness, and diffusion coefficient also were calculated for the samples immersed in different solutions (Wastewater, HCl-0.5N, and Tape water) for four months. Results showed that the mechanical properties of samples were affected by solutions and reduced by (3 – 5)% for impact strength and (10%) for compressive strength. Values for diffusion coefficient (D) were calculated, it
was found that (HCl-0.5N) had a higher value, followed by wastewater then tape water. No cracks were observed, and there were no changes in sample’s dimensions after immersion in solutions.

The Effect of Ceramic Particale Oxides addition on Wear Resistance of Composite Material for Aluminum Base Alloy

Israa Abdulkader; Maryam Abduladhem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 7, Pages 1249-1264

To The aim of this research is to study the effect of 5 wt % Al2O3
addition Al- base alloy on sliding wear resistance under dry sliding
conditions using pin- on- disc machine . Wear test was conducted
after squeeze casting under different pressure ( 30 , 60 , 90) Mpa.
The results show that wear rate for Al- base alloy composites
increases with increasing applied load but decreases with increasing
sliding speed conditions . The composites which casting at 90 Mpa
pressure represents lower wear rate than those which cast at 30, 60 Mpa
pressure and the base alloy . The results also observed that the
coefficient of friction increasing with increasing sliding time but reaches to the steady state after 200 sec. The microhardness and ultimate tensile strength increases with increasing squeeze casting pressure.

Mechanical Properties For Pipes Made From Composite Materials (Glass/ Epoxy And Carbon/ Epoxy) Subjected To Internal Pressure

Zainab K. Hantoosh; Hatam Kareem Kadhom; Aseel Jasim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 117-134

Composite Materials have been used extensively in application such as pipes and pressure vessels. Therefore it is important for further studies on the properties of these materials. This paper presents the results from a series of tensile tests on the mechanical properties of composite materials. Specimens cut from pipes made from composite materials were tested under internal pressure loadings have been tested by using a series of ASTM Standards test methods for mechanical properties. Based on the results obtained, the longitudinal E11,
transverse E22 and shear modulus G12 of 101.2 GPa, 5.718 GPa, 4.346 GPa and 36.6, 5.4 GPa, 4.085 GPa for carbon and glass fiber/ epoxy composites, respectively, while the ultimate longitudinal XL, transverse XT and shear tensile τ0 strengths of 1475.4 MPa, 20 MPa, 36 MPa and 618.9 MPa, 14 MPa, 28 MPa for carbon and glass fiber/epoxy composites, respectively. The results from this series of tests have been presented and compared with results from analytical equations. Good agreement was achieved between the experimental results and
analytical results.

A Study Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin Cured at Constant Curing Time and Temperature with Different Hardeners

Najat j. Saleh; Adnan A. Abdul Razak; Manal A. Tooma; Mariam E.Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 9, Pages 1804-1819

In this study, a low molecular weight epoxy resin diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) is cured isothermally with an aliphatic and aromatic amine hardeners separately. (1) Triethylenetetramine (TETA), (2) diamino diphenylmethane (DDM). The samples were prepared for different hardener/resin ratios, (under stoichiometry, stoichiometry and above stoichimetry). The mechanical Properties impact strength, tensile strength, hardness, flexural strength, compression strength and bending strength of an epoxy system has been investigated in this work. For DGEBA/TETA system the tests were done on four hardener/resin ratios (10, 13, 15 and 20) phr and for DGEBA/DDM system the hardener/resin ratios were four also; (24, 27, 30 and 34) phr. The results showed
that the above stoichiometry ratio formulation (15 phr for DGEBA/TETA system and 30 phr for DGEBA/DDM system) gave the best mechanical properties, while the DGEBA/DDM system showed better mechanical properties than the DGEBA/TETA system.

The Effect of Solvent Additions on theMechanical Properties of Epoxy

Khalid K. Abbass; Akram R. Jabur; Saad B. H. Farid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5732-5743

The effect of the TolueneC6H5CH3 and Acetone (CH3)2CO additions on the
mechanical properties of cured Epoxy is studied. Different weight percentages of
Toluene (0, 4, 8, 10 & 14 wt%) and Acetone (0, 3, 5, 8 & 10 wt%) were used
under curing temperatures (40°C and 60°C) for Toluene and 40°C for Acetone
with curing time of 24hrs. The results show improved mechanical properties
(Young modulus and Fracture stress) for Epoxy samples cured at 40°C with the
increase of Toluene to a maximum of 8wt%, then these properties are degraded as
the Toluene percentage increase. In the contrary, the Epoxy samples cured at 60 °C
shows poorer properties with increased weight percentages of the Toluene.
Epoxy samples thinned with different amount of Acetone solvent is
prepared and cured. These samples show best mechanical properties at Acetone
addition of 5wt%. Extra amounts of Acetone addition degrade the results. The
mechanical properties, fracture morphology and FTIR spectra shows more
aggressive effect of the Acetone compared with Toluene as solven

Influence of Cut Out Way on the Elastic-Plastic Behavior of AL-Cu Alloy

Farag M. Mohammed; Assifa M. Mohamad; Dunia H. Escander

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 15, Pages 5000-5013

The influence of cut out way on the elastic-plastic behavior of AL-Cu alloy was studied in the present work experimentally and numerically using finite element method with aid of ANSYS-11 software. Central circular hole were introduced in (ASTM B 557-02a) tension specimens of alloy using drill and punch at cold and warm working conditions with (3.5, 4.25 and 6) mm diameters. Based on the results from experimental tension tests, as the hole diameter increases the mechanical properties of the alloy decreases. Tensile strength and yield stress with using bunch are less than that of using drill by 4% and 6% at cold condition, while at warm working condition by 34% and 42% respectively. But the elongation at maximum tensile strength of using punch is greater than that of using drill at cold working condition and vice versa at warm working condition. The fractures with using punch happen faster than that of using drill at lower strain rate. The apparent stress concentration factor ranged from 1.19 to 2.9 with using drill, and from 1.25 to 3.39 with using punch. The numerical results present the von Mises Stress distribution to identify the location that possibly
initializes the fracture, and to estimate the stress concentration factor in which ranged from 2.13 to 2.39 and have reasonable agreement results with literatures.

The Effect of Artificial Aging on Mechanical Properties of Metal Matrix Composite

Jenan S. Kashan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 282-288

Recently the use of the composite material based on aluminum alloys matrix is
increased because of their good mechanical properties and light weight.
In this work the addition of % SiC particle to the aluminum (6063) matrix effect was
considered and the solution heat treatment was applied on the produced composite
material which has optimum properties followed by artificial aging.
The work shows that the hardness increased and the wear rate decreased with the
addition of silicon carbide particles (SiC) , where as optimum produced composite
material which has best properties is ( 15% SiC ) . On the other hand the increasing
in temperature and time of artificial aging increases the properties.

Studing The Mechanical Properties And Morphology of Ternary Blends Of Polyethylene

Nabeela A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 6, Pages 1197-1205

The mechanical properties and the morphology of the ternary blend of
LDPE/LLDPE/HDPE were studied.
In the present work LDPE was mixed with equal amount of LLDPE and different
wt% of HDPE (0, 10, 20 and 30 %) using the two roll mills. The mechanical properties
and the morphology were specified by measuring the (tensile, hardness, impact
properties) for the former, and photomicrograph for the later. From the tensile test
results it was found that the tensile strength at break of the ternary blend increased with
increasing the HDPE contain also the increases of wt% HDPE leads to decrease the
elongation at break. For the hardness test it was found that the shore hardness of the
ternary blends increased with the increasing the HDPE contain .On the other hand the
impact test carried out also and it was found that the addition of HDPE leads to
decrease the impact strength . Nevertheless, optical micrograph results that the HDPE
serves as a compatabilizing agent for immiscible LDPE/LLDPE