Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Wastewater

Treatment of Iraqi Municipal Wastewater by up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor UASB

Khairi R. Kalash; Majid A. Dixon; Hussein IR. Sultan; Raad A. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 1A, Pages 130-136
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i1A.571

In this work, the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket “UASB” reactor treated effluent wastewater to investigate the process performance on a pilot plant scale. Municipal wastewater at high and medium strength with different organic load rate OLR (0.6-9) kg COD m-3day-1 with the flow of 20 l/h, up-flow velocity 0.4 m/h, hydraulic retention time HRT 9 h at a temperature of (20-30 ºC) was evaluated. The wastewater concentration, including TSS, COD was measured, and the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solid TSS were calculated and summarized as 45-85% and 70-75%, respectively, depending on organic load rate OLR. Effluent volatile fatty acids VFA was measured, and the results were in the range between 12-90 mg/L depending on OLR with a slight change in pH (8.3-8.4), which means the conversion of COD to methane and increase ammonia concentration.

Using Microbial Desalination Cell to Treat Iraqi Wastewater

Talib R. Abbas; Majid A. Dixon; Mustafa Hussein Al-Furaiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 227-234
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.2

A Three-chambers MDC was made using three identical cubical
plexi-glass sections. Each chamber has an effective volume of 35 cm3. An anion
exchange membrane (AEM) was used to separate the anode from the
desalination chambers while a cation exchange membrane (CEM) was used to
separate the cathode from the desalination chambers. Two graphite sheets were
used as anode and cathode electrodes. Biotic experiments have included aircathode MDC fed with synthetic municipal wastewater, Bio-cathode MDC in
which the cathode chamber was inoculated with microalgae as an oxygen
source and air-cathode MDC was fed with floated oil layer in the anode
chamber as an organic source. Maximum power density obtained from the
MDC was 121 mW/m2. The corresponding current density was 410 mA/m2.
Maximum power density obtained in this study was in consistency with that
presented in previous studies. Maximum coulombic efficiency and charge
efficiency achieved were 9% and 165% respectively. The results of this study
confirmed the validity of using MDC technology to treat municipal wastewater
as well as oil, desalinate brackish water and generate electric power
simultaneously. Moreover, the results revealed the possibility of using mixed
culture algae, available in the Iraqi environment, in the cathode chamber as an
oxygen source to develop more energy efficient MDC. Further study deals with
different system configurations and different operating conditions are needed.

Shortage Sanitation Services in the Outskirts of Baghdad and its Environmental Impacts

Alaa R.H. Al-Obaidi; Sara D.A. Zangana; Saja H.S. Al-Sudany

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.1

This study focuses on evaluation of the reality of wastewater services in the areas of outskirts of Baghdad which the responsibility of their implementation rests on the province of Baghdad and the ministry of construction and housing and general municipalities/ the General Directorate of Sewerage GDS, and to suggest the possibility to improve these services in light of the plans developed by the concerned authorities and the proportion of disability in the services suffered by those areas. The study concluded that the completion of the stopped project because of the financial crisis will raise the proportion of serves population to approximately 71.4%, and the construction of new projects will raise the proportion to approximately 100%.

Synthesis of Magnetic MWCNTs Nanohybrids and Application in Remediation of Chromium Ions in Refinery Wastewater


Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 838-841

This study presents the preparation of Magnetic - Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (M-MWCNTs) as adsorbents, MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite, in which multiwall carbon nanotubes were coated to magnetic Fe3O4 particles by simplistic sol-gel techniques. The synthesized MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nano-composites were measured via Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X -Ray Diffraction spectrometry (XRD), and Scanning -electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption behaviors of the MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nanocomposites will be evaluated intended for the elimination of chromium ions in diluted refinery wastewater.

Phytoremediation of Cr and Pb from Soil Irrigated by Wastewater

Riyad Al-Anbari; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Tiba J. Al-Imari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2380-2386

In order to evaluate the effect of agricultural crops, such as kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.), corn (Zea Mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the removal of Cr and Pb from soil irrigated with wastewater, an experimental pot was conducted at Green House of University of Technology. Three levels of water were used for irrigation included tap water (control) (T1), 50% of wastewater+50% of tap water (50%WW) (T2) and 100% wastewater (100%WW) (T3). The obtained results, indicated that kenaf, and barley have been an effective plant in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiency. Maximum values of removal efficiency were recorded in August 2015 for the (100%WW) and found 85.59%, 82.77, 93.27% of Pb and 85.67, 93.85, 87.24% of Cr for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. Minimum removal efficiencies recorded at (50%WW) treatment for Pb were (5.66, 4.48, 0.99% ) and at control treatment for Cr were ( 0.99, 1.51, 2.37%) for Cr in May 2015 for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. From the results obtained, kenaf, and barley were effective in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiencies.

Effect of Recharging Primary Treated Domestic Wastewater on the Soil Characteristics

Ahmed Hazim AbdulKareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 20, Pages 375-387

A study was carried out to investigate the effects of recharging primary treated domestic wastewater on soil characteristics by special recharge-recovery method developed and practiced in the laboratory working model. Recently, the amounts of wastewater are sharply increasing and the kinds of pollutants are also varied as the world wide industry is being developed incessantly. The subbase soil is brought from Jerashi quarry, northeast of Ramadi and placed in model which is made from plexus glass with dimensions (1.1 m * 1.1 m * 0.6 m). Wastewater characteristics, main soil and soil samples after recharging of wastewater 330L, 420L, 510L, and 600L, for one time every seven days and comparing the means for soil chemical characteristics before and after experiment. Soil reaction (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), chloride ions (CL), sulphate content (SO3), gypsum content (GC), total dissolved salt, (TSS), and total dissolved solids (TDS). The soil-aquifer system (SAT) can be used efficiently as a wastewater treatment plant. After recharging wastewater, there were slightly increase of pH and OM in comparison with EC, CL, SO3, GC, TSS, and TDS which might cause problems in the long term if the land was used for construction purposes.

Testing the Applicability of Submerged Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Technology for Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Iraq

Talib R. Abbas; Mohammed A. Abdul-Majeed; Inmar N.Ghazi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3467-3473

Operation of a one module hollow fiber submerged type MBR system was
tested in this work. The system was operated at fixed permeate flowrate of 12 l/hr.
The hydraulic retention time of the aeration tank was about 8.3 hr. The mixed
liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration was maintained in the range 5000-
5500 mg/l. The results show the workability of this system under Iraqi conditions
without any difficulties. About 85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal
was achieved. The value of turbidity is well below 0.61 NTU throughout the
operation time.

Adsorption of Direct Yellow 4 Dye on the Silica Prepared from Locally Available Sodium Silicate

Sameer Hakeem Kareem; Manal Obeid Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 15, Pages 2609-2625

In this study the ability of removing direct yellow 4 dye (DY4) from aqueous solutions using silica as adsorbent was examined. The silica was prepared from locally available sodium silicate. The effect of various experimental parameters contact time, amount of silica used, pH, ionic strength and temperature were investigated in a batch adsorption technique. The obtained experimental data shows that, the adsorption of direct yellow 4 dye was increased directly with increasing concentration, amount of silica, added sodium chloride and temperature in optimum pH (7) and equilibrium time of 45 min. The kinetic data were analyzed through pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo second-order model best represented adsorption kinetics. Additionally, this study used the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms to describe equilibrium adsorption and calculating thermodynamic values. The equilibrium adsorption of direct yellow 4 on silica is best fitted in the Langmuir isotherm (R2 =0.981).

The Use of Local Sawdust as an Adsorbent for the Removal of Copper Ion from Wastewater Using Fixed Bed Adsorption

Nagham A. Ageena

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 224-235

The aim of the present work is to study the removal of copper ion presents in
industrial waste water using the local sawdust.
Adsorption column was utilized in the removal process at constant temperature.
The effect of the concentration of copper ion in the range (100-500) mg/L was
studied. Increasing the inlet ion concentration increases the slope of the breakthrough
curve. The effect of bed height in the range of (10-30) cm on copper ion
adsorption from wastewater was studied. The increase in bed height increases the
break point values. The effect of flow rate in the range (0.5-1.5) cm3/sec on copper
ion adsorption also was studied. Increasing the flow rate decreases the breakthrough
time. The best operating conditions in this work for copper ion adsorption
are 100 mg/L of feed, 30 cm bed height and 0.5 cm3/sec feed flow rate. It was
found that the equilibrium relation agrees with Langmuir & Freundlich equations.
Finally accumulation adsorption of copper ion at different operating conditions
was calculated.


Matheel D. Al-Sabtia; Nahidh W. Kasser; Mudhafar Y. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 11, Pages 1326-1340

Wastewater from electronic printed circuit board (PCB) factories was subjected
to lab-scale ion exchangers of two types: strong acid cation followed by weak base
anion exchanger. The experimental investigation was directed to study the ion
exchanger performance in terms of three different parameters namely (TDS, feed
rate and bed depth). Box-Wilson composite rotatable design was adopted in
designing the experiments. Breakthrough times of (PCB) wastewater were studied
through TDS ranged between 317 to 1193 ppm, feed rate ranged between 0.712 to
4.980 l/h, and bed depth of cation exchanger ranged between 9.4 to 60.6 cm and
anion exchanger ranged between 14.3 to 91.0 cm.
Simulation the effect of the studied variables through their pre-designed ranges
in terms of breakthrough time by 2nd order polynomial equation was obtained. In
general, the performance and characteristics of adopting two bed deionizers (cation
and anion beds) was proved efficient for the removal of the ionic contaminants and
not less than 95 % of wastewater is recycled. In addition, the research considers the
treatment of highly metals content regenerant solution out coming from
reclamation system to minimize its metal content. The reclamation of wastewater
was studied in terms of breakthrough time (i.e., the leakage of the cations).