Keywords : Geographic Information System
Engineering and Technology Journal,
2017, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 182-188
There are different techniques for securing data like cryptography and information hiding (steganography and watermarking) which has received more attention and faced many challenges. In this paper, an efficient digital steganography method has been proposed, where the Geographic Information System (GIS) files used as a cover media. This method depends on hiding text file in a map vector coordinate using ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute) Shape file, which stores the geometry of the digital features as sets of vector, coordinates. The method is based on changing the value of unspecific order bits depending on an Input location. Since we are interested in maximizing capacity and ensure robustness requirements. Exploiting the advantage of double percentage number capacity in the 2Dimension vector file was one of the main goals of this research. A Steganography techniques requirement was satisfied since changing maps did not raise any suspicion, while they do not alter the original data content.
Distribution Pattern of theInternallyDisplaced Persons (IDPs) and Its Impact on the Educational Services in KarbalaUsing Geographic Information System
Engineering and Technology Journal,
2016, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 152-162
The increase in the number of Internal displacedpersons (IDPs) in Iraq, especially afterthe10th of June 2014 is unprecedented in the modern history of Iraq. This has lasted for a long period without solving the problem fundamentally by returning these peopleto their original regions of residence after providing security and basic services. Their suffering increases daily in the provinces that displaced them for the lack of adequate services, the most important and appropriate housing, health and education despite the long time of displacement which exceeded the year. In addition to the problems resulting from the inability of the system services in these provinces to afford such large numbers of displaced people, been already suffering from many problems, exceeding significantly.
The geographical distribution study of the locations of the displaced and exceeding their numbers within each province is an important and essential step needed to prepare plans to provide basic services to those people in order to alleviate the suffering, and because the continuation of the education process forIDP students is one of the important things to ensure no loss of any year of education in order to preserve their scientific future.
Research began by creating geographic database using geographic information systems software (Arc GIS desktop 10), to represent the number and distribution of displaced in the holy province of Karbala and the number of displaced students in the schools in all stages, and indicates the distribution efficiency of displaced schools in terms of accessibility.
The study concluded that the displaced persons are distributed at rates (68%, 29%, and 3%) in governorate center, al-hindiya district, and ain al-tamur district respectively. The distribution of displaced people in governorate center was at rates (71%, 17%, and 12%) on the district center, Hussainia sub-district and al-Hur sub-district respectively. They were distributed in the al-hindiya district at rates (16%, 34%, and 50%) on the district center and al-jadwal al-Gharbi sub-district and al-khairat sub-district respectively.72% of the Enrolled displaced students joined 544 schoolsin the provincefor the academic year 2014-2015, while eight schools allocated for IDP students havereceived 28% of them only.