Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

### Keywords : inverse kinematics

##### Kinematics Analysis of 5 DOF Robotic Arm

Tahseen F. Abaas; Ali A. Khleif; Mohanad Q. Abbood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3A, Pages 412-422
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3A.475

This paper presents the forward, inverse, and velocity kinematics analysis of a 5 DOF robotic arm. The Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) parameters are used to determination of the forward kinematics while an algebraic solution is used in the inverse kinematics solution to determine the position and orientation of the end effector. Jacobian matrix is used to calculate the velocity kinematics of the robotic arm. The movement of the robotic arm is accomplished using the microcontroller (Arduino Mega2560), which controlling on five servomotors of the robotic arm joints and one servo of the gripper. The position and orientation of the end effector are calculated using MATLAB software depending on the DH parameters. The results indicated the shoulder joint is more effect on the velocity of the robotic arm from the other joints, and the maximum error in the position of the end-effector occurred with the z-axis and minimum error with the y-axis.

##### Enhanced Solution of Inverse Kinematics for Redundant Robot Manipulator Using PSO

Hind Z. Khaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 241-247
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.4

Kinematics of the robot is divided into two parts: the forward
kinematics, which evaluates the end-effector’s position from joint angles, and the
inverse kinematics, which demonstrates the joint angles from the end-effector's
position. The solution of the inverse kinematics problem is too difficult and
complicated for the redundant robot arm manipulator. A Particle Swarm
Optimization (PSO) algorithm is an effective method to solve global optimization
problems. This paper presents the solution of inverse kinematics problem of a
three-link redundant manipulator robot arm using PSO without using the inverse
kinematics equations. The circle, square and triangle generated trajectories using
PSO are enhanced as compared with the trajectories of other works. The
enhanced PSO algorithm is successfully found the best generating three joint
angles and the best generating end-effector's position of a three-link robot arm.
Then according to these joints and positions the circle, square and triangle path
trajectories, results are smoother than the path trajectories of other work. This
enhanced solution of inverse kinematics using PSO algorithm is too fast due to
the short elapsed time in every iteration of trajectory. Besides that, these
velocities results have been given evaluated and give an indication that the threelink robot is moving fast during the PSO algorithm. The elapsed time of circle
trajectory equals to 20.903981 seconds, the elapsed time of square trajectory
equals to 11.747171 seconds and the elapsed time of triangle trajectory equals to
15.729663 seconds. MATLAB R2015b program is used in order to simulate all
results. The main benefit of this work is to solve two problems: 1) inverse
kinematics is too complex equations of the three-link robot. The solutions of best
joint angles using PSO are computed within joint limits without using inverse
kinematics equations. 2) Another problem, this work is enhanced three
trajectories with respect to the best joint angles and reaches 96% percent as
compared with another work. The error is too small according to the start and
goal PSO generated points for each trajectory.