Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Flow rate

Design and Evaluation of Zirconia Based Thermal Barrier Powders for Advanced Engines

M.J.Kadhim; M. H. Hafiz; M. A. Ali Bash

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 10, Pages 1011-1024

Advanced utility, diesel and turbines engines used widely in aerospace, chemical and oil industries are based on plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings. The successful performance of these coatings during servicing are relied mostly on the careful design, selection and analysis of zirconia-based ceramic powders stabilized with yttria and ceria. Different design of sampling techniques relevant for each evaluates property is a key factor to obtain reliable data. Significant property differences were observed for single and mixed powders. In the present work the particle size, its distribution, apparent density, flow rate, biased standard deviation, unbiased standard deviation and phases were characterized using sieving, flowmeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), step scanning X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and FT-IR. Two single alloyed zirconia powders of zirconia- 25 wt% CeO2-2.5 wt% Y2O3 (Sulzer Metco 205NS) and zirconia- 8 wt% Y2O3 (Sulzer Metco 204NS-G) and mixture of these powders 80 wt% (Sulzer Metco 205NS) and 20 wt% (Sulzer Metco 204NS-G) were investigated. The particle shape has a remarkable effect on the flow rate and apparent density rather than the other properties. The particle distribution gives important noticeable information for the plasma spraying coatings.

Experimental Study of Drag Reduction Phenomena within Pipe Flow in a Closed Circuit System Using Surfactant Additives

S. A. Alramadhni; N. J. Saleh; G. A.R. Rassol

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 1-13

Pipe lines and tubes are used throughout the worlds for the economic transportation of crude oil, petroleum derivatives, gas and water. A drag reduction phenomenon within pipe flow in a closed circuit system was studying experimentally using Surfactant Additives.
Closed circuit system consist of two loops pipes (0.0254 m & 0.0508 m) ID respectively was constructed from carbon steel metal , total length of pipe was around 16 m and the test section was 4m. Similar closed circuit system consist of two loops of PVC pipes with the same diameters were also built. The idea of using PVC pipe was to be used inside carbon steel pipe to get smooth surface similar to using complaint coating like epoxy or polyethylene or poly vinyl chloride (PVC).
The effect of using two kinds of Anionic and Nonanionic surfactants (SDBS, POEA) Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate and Polyoxyethylene Alcohol respectively were studied, Small amount of surfactant additives (50 ppm up to 300 ppm), were added to the solvent (kerosene) which was selected to be the fluid flow through the closed circuit system, choosing kerosene ( refinery product) to improve its flow (increasing flow rate).
A comparison between results obtained by carbon steel and PVC pipes were carried out. The best results obtained indicate that PVC pipe gave around (53% -66%) flow rate increase in kerosene compared with flowing in carbon steel pipe. On addition of additives for SDBS in kerosene improved flow rate about (61% to 69%).