Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : fractal


Images Enhancement Based on a New Multi-Dimensional Fractal Created by Rectangular Function

Rabab F. Farhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages 1295-1306
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134235.1229

Digital image processing is a field that is included in many journals due to its importance and the fact that it facilitates the achievement of many scientific and engineering applications worldwide. This specialization is linked with other disciplines, whether medical, engineering, sports, and others, as it facilitates the completion of applications quickly and efficiently. Researchers have discovered and garnered notice as a promising analytic tool in image processing using the idea of fractal dimension. In this effort, a new Multi-Dimensional Fractal (MDF) in view of the rectangle function was introduced a. As an application, the MDF to improve and enhance the images was employed, and found that there is a connection between MDF and image processing, where the self-similarity property, for example, is one of several features in the new definition. Other properties are discussed in the sequel, including image noise reduction. The presence of noise is responsible for properly operating these images in various applications. Several academics have created and applied a strategy for minimizing noise in features multiplicatively throughout the last several years.  The outcomes reveal that the proposed strategy is successful. The method is based on the definition of the rectangular function (the elementary component of all digital signals, videos, and images), where this function indicates a rectangular-formed rhythm that is concentrated at the origin. For example, the suggested process received a rate of 97% for PNSR and 95% for RMSD.

Design of Fractal- Based Bandstop Filter for Microwave Radiation Leakage Reduction

Ali J. Salim; J.K. Ali; H.S. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1A, Pages 16-23
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127306

There is a continuing concern over the risks associated with the use of microwave ovens because of the probable effects of the radiation leakage on the health of the individuals. In this paper, a new microstrip bandstop filter BSF is presented, designed and measured as an attempt to reduce the radiation leakage from the domestic microwave ovens operating at 2.45 GHz. The proposed BSF is composed of fractal based open-loop resonators coupled with an open-stub transmission line. The open-loop resonators are in the form of modified Minkowski fractal geometry of the 1st iteration. The open stubs have been adopted to increase the selectivity of the filter stopband response. The suggested filter is designed at 2.45 GHz. Modeling and performance assessments of the proposed filter have been evaluated by means of the computer software technique CST Microwave Studio and the Sonnet EM simulator. Simulation results reveal that the modeled filter offers stopband response with high selectivity. A prototype of the proposed filter is fabricated. The size limitations of the microwave oven opening width have been taken into account. Good agreement has been found between measured and simulated results. Four arrays of such a filter have been implemented to cover the microwave oven door frame taking into consideration the opening dimensions such that it well fit it. Measured radiated electric fields from the oven show that it considerably reduces the leaked radiation. By suitable choice of substrate material and carrying out the required dimension scaling, the proposed design idea is flexible and can be generalized for use with a wide variety of microwave equipment in which microwave leakage represents a serious issue.