Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Surfactants

Experimental Study of Drag Reduction Phenomena within Pipe Flow in a Closed Circuit System Using Surfactant Additives

S. A. Alramadhni; N. J. Saleh; G. A.R. Rassol

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 1-13

Pipe lines and tubes are used throughout the worlds for the economic transportation of crude oil, petroleum derivatives, gas and water. A drag reduction phenomenon within pipe flow in a closed circuit system was studying experimentally using Surfactant Additives.
Closed circuit system consist of two loops pipes (0.0254 m & 0.0508 m) ID respectively was constructed from carbon steel metal , total length of pipe was around 16 m and the test section was 4m. Similar closed circuit system consist of two loops of PVC pipes with the same diameters were also built. The idea of using PVC pipe was to be used inside carbon steel pipe to get smooth surface similar to using complaint coating like epoxy or polyethylene or poly vinyl chloride (PVC).
The effect of using two kinds of Anionic and Nonanionic surfactants (SDBS, POEA) Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate and Polyoxyethylene Alcohol respectively were studied, Small amount of surfactant additives (50 ppm up to 300 ppm), were added to the solvent (kerosene) which was selected to be the fluid flow through the closed circuit system, choosing kerosene ( refinery product) to improve its flow (increasing flow rate).
A comparison between results obtained by carbon steel and PVC pipes were carried out. The best results obtained indicate that PVC pipe gave around (53% -66%) flow rate increase in kerosene compared with flowing in carbon steel pipe. On addition of additives for SDBS in kerosene improved flow rate about (61% to 69%).

To Prepare Special Formula to be Used as Diesel Fuel

Taghreed M. Hameed; Laith Hamzah Thuaban; Seham Mzher; Aqeel Talip Jafar; Wurood Ali Aboud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 1-10

The basic idea for this research is summarized in preparing special formula consisting of cut hydrocarbon petroleum with pure water and a combination of surface tension materials and the formula prepared in the form of emulsion (diesel-water) which is being stabilized in storage temperature and at temperatures and colliding pressure during use .The prepared emulsion is used in the interior combustion engines to increase the efficiency of fuel and reducing of toxic gases emissions and contaminated particles.
Iraqi diesel fuel product in" Daura Refinery” was selected and the emulsion was prepared by mixing with gradual addition of water to the diesel containing small amounts of (surface- tension) material. In this research variables and optimum conditions of preparation and their impact on stability were studied such as water/diesel ratio, concentration of surfactants, mixing periods and mixing speeds. The physical properties of formula prepared were measured such as density, viscosity and surface tension. The results show that the optimum conditions of preparation were: 5% water/diesel ratio; 0.2% concentration of surfactants; 3 min. mixing period and 4000 rpm mixing speed.