Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : X-Ray Diffraction

Synthesis of Porous Silicon by Electrochemical Etching for Gas Sensor Application

Duha H. Jwied; Uday M. Nayef; Falah AH Mutlak

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 555-562
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i4.2064

In the present study, the layers of porous Silicon (PS) have been produced from the p-type Silicon with a (100) orientation using the approach of electrochemical etching. The samples were anodized in a solution of HF concentration 18% and 99% C2H2OH. Samples characteristics of PS were studied by etching time constant (15 min). In addition, the alteration of the current density value into (5, 10,15,20, and 25) mA/ cm2 was also studied. Samples were characterized by nanocrystalline porous Silicon via X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM (Atomic force microscope) analysis of PS shows the sponge-like structure. Also, a 39.76 nm average diameter was coordinated in the rod-like temperature variation, fabricated from prepared samples on the sensor's sensitivity, recovery time, and response time. The maximal level of the sensitivity has been approximately (20,11)% for porous Silicon of gas NO2 and NH3, respectively.

Effect of Input Parameters on SR and MRR for Tool Steel AISI L2 By Electric Discharge Machine (EDM)

Shukry H. Aghdeab; raead rashed; Tahseen M. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 928-935
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i6.1849

Electric discharge machine (EDM) or may be call electric spark machine is one of the most important cutting process or manufacturing process because it gives high accurate dimension and can be produced the most complex shape. In this present material removal rate and surface roughness for tool steel AISI L2 studied. The input parametric for this process is current, pulse on time (Ton) and pulse off time (Toff).A full factorial method is used to formulate machine parameters and find the optimal process parameters of an electric spark. The result shows that the Surface roughness increasing with increasing current and pulse on time is increases while no effect by increase in pulse off time. Best surface roughness when using low current and pulse in time. The material removal rate is increasing with increasing in current and pulse on time while decreasing when pulse of time is increased. The experimented and predicted values by using Minilab17 software ​​of this process are approximately equal.

Experimental and Numerical Investigation into Residual Stress During Turning Operation for Stainless Steel AISI 316

Safa M. Lafta; Maan A. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 12, Pages 1862-1870
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i12A.1607

RS (residual stresses) represent the main role in the performance of structures and machined parts. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of feed rate with constant cutting speed and depth of cut on residual stresses in orthogonal cutting, using Tungsten carbide cutting tools when machining AISI 316 in turning operation. AISI 316 stainless steel was selected in experiments since it is used in many important industries such as chemical, petrochemical industries, power generation, electrical engineering, food and beverage industry. Four feed rates were selected (0.228, 0.16, 0.08 and 0.065) mm/rev when cutting speed is constant 71 mm/min and depth of cutting 2 mm. The experimental results of residual stresses were (-15.75, 12.84, 64.9, 37.74) MPa and the numerical results of residual stresses were (-15, 12, 59, and 37) MPa. The best value of residual stresses is (-15.75 and -15) MPa when it is in a compressive way. The results showed that the percentage error between numerical by using (ABAQUS/ CAE ver. 2017) and experimental work measured by X-ray diffraction is range (2-15) %

Preparation and Study the Structure of Pure and Impure Barium Titanate with Zr4+ Ion

Mojahid M. Najim; Wasan A. Hekmat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 21-24
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.4

In this research, pure and impure barium titanate with Zr4+ ion with two molar ratios x= (5, 10) % have been synthesized by solid-state reaction technique. The powders calculations at two temperatures (950°C and 1400°C). An XRD technique was used in order to study the crystal structure of pure and impure barium titanate, which confirmed the formation of the tetragonal phase of BaTiO3, then calculate the lattice parameters of pure and impure barium titanate, the addition of zirconium ion Zr4+ lead to increases lattice parameters.