Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : liquid


Conversion of Glycerol into Value Added Products by Catalytic Processing

Nidal Al Derzi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 15, Pages 2715-2724

The conversion of glycerol into value added chemicals have emerged in recent years as a result of glycerol unique structure, properties, bioavailability, and renewability. Glycerol is produced in large amounts during trans-esterification of fatty acids into biodiesel, and as such represents a useful by-product.
In this paper, the liquid phase oxidation of glycerol has been studied over gold nanoparticles supported on TiO2, and synthesized by using deposition-precipitation method. The catalysts are characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, and activity towards CO oxidation. Active catalysts comprise particle size distributions (2-5 nm diameters) for gold nanoparticles. The results indicate that the Au/TiO2 catalyst showed the best performances both for activity and selectivity toward glyceric acid. We have also studied the effect of reaction conditions such as, amount of catalyst and concentration of base in the catalytic activity.

Optimization of liquid-liquid Extraction Column Using Genetic Algorithms

Ali D. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 10, Pages 1797-1810

In the present study, liquid-liquid extraction column was optimized using Genetic
Algorithms as a non-conventional optimization technique, which scores over
conventional techniques. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a stochastic search technique
mimics the principle of natural genetics and natural selection to constitute search and
optimization. Genetic Algorithm is applied to the optimal design of liquid-liquid
extraction column to maximize the extraction rate using the superficial velocities of
raffinate and extract phases, (υx, υy) respectively as design variables using Matlab GA
toolbox. Different Genetic Algorithm strategies were used for optimization and the
design parameters such as Population size, crossover rate and Mutation were studied. It
was found that for constant distribution coefficient, m the convergence is obtained in a
very few generations (51 generations). The effect of distribution coefficient, m was
also studied on the optimization process and found that when increasing the
distribution coefficient the optimum extraction rate increased. The best values for υx
and υy were 0.142 and 0.059 respectively, and the objective function (maximum) was
0.2844187.

Heat Transfer from an Immersed Heater in Liquid – Liquid – Solid Fluidized Beds

Asrar A. Al-Obaidy; Majid I. Abdul-Wahab; Balasim A. Abid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1901-1914

Heat transfer from an immersed heating surface to a liquid-solid and liquid-liquidsolid fluidized beds have been studied. The experiments were carried out in a (0.22) m column diameter fitted with an axially mounted cylindrical heater heated electrically. The fluidizing medium was water as the continuous phase and kerosene as the dispersed phase. Low density (Ploymethyl-methacrylate) particles were used. Previous
published heat transfer correlations, obtained for fluidized beds containing highdensity particles, gave significant deviations compared with the present data. New correlations were developed to predict the heat transfer coefficients in liquid-solid and liquid-liquid-solid fluidized beds. The new correlation is,

The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present work were compared with those estimated from other correlations reported in the literature. The comparison shows a good agreement with the data obtained for the gas-liquid-solid fluidized beds using low-density particles.