Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Fibers

Optimum Parameter Selection for Milling Different Laminate Composites Made by Hand Layup with CNC Milling Machine

Ghadak M. Alkhafaji; Fathi A. Alshamma; Enas A. Khalid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1352-1361
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.1737

Recently, composite materials were widely used in different applications due to their lightweight, and good thermal and mechanical properties. In this study, an attempt to manufacture laminate composites by hand layup was performed. Also, optimal parameters for the best surface roughness were investigated. Therefore, three parameters had been examined; spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. The L9 Taguchi orthogonal array, signal to noise (S/N) ratio, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were selected to determine the optimum parameters. To create composites, the compression method was employed. Four different types of composites were manufactured with 2.8 mm thickness, to determine the effect of the parameters on the surface roughness and for specified parameters using the CNC milling machine. The weight fraction ratio of fibers was 39%, the polymer was 34%, and 27% for Aluminum. The results showed that the optimum parameters for surface roughness in milling machine of composites for Polyester resin for aluminum–fiberglass composite are; spindle speed=5000 r.p.m, feed rate=1600 mm/min, depth of cut=1.6 mm and Ra=1.853 μm, and for epoxy resin; aluminum–carbon fiber composite is spindle speed=4000 r.p.m, feed rate=800 mm/min, depth of cut=1.2 mm and Ra=2.43 μm.

An Overview on Most Effective DRAs in Crude Oil Pipelines

Raheeq I. Ibrahim; Manal K. Odah; Dhoha A. Shafeeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 391-397
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.2

The flow of crude oil in pipelines suffers from a problem of fluid flow pressure drop and high-energy consumption for pumping especially in low temperatures environment. Flow can be enhanced using viscosity either reduction or drag reduction techniques. Drag reduction is considered as the most effective and most applicable method. The technique contributes in reducing the frictional energy losses during the flow by addition of little doses of materials knowing as drag-reducing agents. The present work focuses on more recent and most applicable drag-reducing agents used in crude oil flow enhancement via pipelines.