Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Biodiesel

The Effect of Eichhornia Crassipes Biodiesel/LPG Dual-Fuel on Performance and Emissions in a Single-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

Hawraa S. Mohammed; Mahmoud A. Mashkour

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 232-242
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.135176.1266

This study investigates the effects of Eichhornia Crassipes Biodiesel (ECB) with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) dual-fuel on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions characteristics. A four-stroke, single-cylinder and water-cooled diesel engine was used. The engine was operated with pure Iraqi diesel (PID) as a reference fuel, 40% ECB-60% PID, and duel fuel mode (DFM) (40% ECB-60% PID-2.4 l/min LPG). The experimental testing was carried out at 1500 rpm constant engine speed, compression ratio 18, and time injection 23° bTDC under various load conditions (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) full load. Using a gas analyzer, the engine emissions, including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx), were measured. An OPABOX smoke unit was used to determine the smoke intensity. The result manifested that the 40% ECB reduced the thermal brake efficiency (BTH) by 7% at partial load, compared with the PID. Exhaust emissions tests at full load displayed a reduction in CO2, CO, HC, and smoke by 44.4%, 70.34%, 31%, 76%, and 47%, respectively, with increasing NOx emission by 17.02% compared with the PID. The (LPG- 40% ECB) DFM at full load elucidated a reduction in CO2, CO, and smoke by (52.38%-14.28%), (81.48%-37.5%) and (86.28 %-41.7%), respectively, while there was an increase in HC and NOx emission by of (15.38%-40%) and (34.2%-20.07%), respectively, compared with the PID and 40% ECB, where the BTH in DFM was higher than 40% ECB by 9.07%. Finally, the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreased by (10.11%-11.2%) compared with PID and 40% biodiesel.

Optimization Process for Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking of Vegetable Oil by Microwave Irradiation

Raheek I. Ibrahim; Ahmed H. Reja; Abeer J. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 49-59
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.1981

Biodiesel is the main alternative to diesel fuel today. The waste cooking vegetable oil can be used as a basic material in its preparation. Microwave irradiation is used in its production and it is considered one of the effective methods that do not consume much power. In this study, biodiesel is produce and determine the factors affecting the quality and quantity of production also investigated using experimental design technique. The effecting of operating variables power, time, and oil-to-ethanol molar ratio were studied, as well as the effect of interaction between operating variables on the quality of production. The optimum conditions that have been found are; the power that the microwave operates is 480 watts, the reaction time is 3.5 minutes, and the oil-to-ethanol molar ratio is 1:5. The maximum production is 91.63% at these optimum conditions. Also, the biodiesel production is testing which include physical properties specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, water content, cloud point, pour point, and flash point and it was in good agreement with standard diesel fuel.

Experimental Study on Performance and Emission Characteristic of Diesel Engine using Sunflower oil Biodiesel Blends

Ghassan S . Ali; Abed AL-Kadim Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 8, Pages 1169-1177
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i8A.385

Biodiesel fuel is a liquid biofuel produced by chemical process form new and used phytogenic oils, animal fats. Biodiesel fuels can be utilization alone or mixing with the pure diesel at different proportion. In the present work a diesel engine type (FIAT) , four cylinder, variable speed, direct injection was operated by sunflower oil methyl ester , biodiesel at different blend ratio . five different ratio of biodiesel blends 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by volume is used in this study and compared with using of pure diesel at variable loads and variable engine speed. The effect of biodiesel additive to pure diesel on the performance and emission characteristics. Adjust the engine speed at 1100 rpm by means of the engine tachometer and digital tachometer, and reduce the load gradually until the engine speed increased to 1900 rpm automatically by increments of 200 rpm. The BSFC for B20 It seems less than the other ratio of biodiesel blends, and the BTE of biodiesel blends is lower than the pure diesel but the B20 having high BTE in comparison with the other biodiesel- diesel mixtures. the UHC and CO emission for B20 is less than the biodiesel blends and pure diesel, but the NOX emission for B20 is lower than the other biodiesel blends and higher than pure diesel. The present work shows the B20 relatively is a better performance and combustion characteristic than that biodiesel blends ratio

Engine Performance with Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Fuel and Emission Characteristics

Marwa N. Kareem; Adel Mahmood Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 5, Pages 779-788
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i5A.419

In this study, the sunflowers oil was utilized as for producing biodiesel via a chemical operation, which is called trans-esterification reaction. Iraqi diesel fuel suffers from high sulfur content, which makes it one of the worst fuels in the world. This study is an attempt to improve the fuel specifications by reducing the sulfur content of the addition of biodiesel fuel to diesel where this fuel is free of sulfur and has a thermal energy that approaches to diesel.20%, 30% and 50% of Biodiesel fuel were added to the conventional diesel. Performance tests and pollutants of a four-stroke single-cylinder diesel engine were performed. The results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency a decreased by (4%, 16%, and 22%) for the B20, B30 and B50, respectively. The increase in specific fuel consumption was (60%, 33%, and 11%) for the B50, B30, and B20 fuels, respectively for the used fuel blends compared to neat diesel fuel. The engine exhaust gas emissions measures manifested a decreased of CO and HC were CO decreased by (13%), (39%) and (52%), and the HC emissions were lower by (6.3%), (32%), and (46%) for B20, B30 and B50 respectively, compared to diesel fuel. The reduction of exhaust gas temperature was (7%), (14%), and (32%) for B20, B30 and B50 respectively. The NOx emission increased with the increase in biodiesel blends ratio. For B50, the raise was (29.5%) in comparison with diesel fuel while for B30 and B20, the raise in the emissions of NOx was (18%) and (3%), respectively

Transesterification of Castor Oil by Using Methanol and Ethanol (50/50) Mixture

Muna M. Khudhair; Sajeda A. Husain; Zahraa M. Jassim; Shefaa M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 59-63
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.10

Biodiesel is gaining considerable attention as a renewable source
of energy, as an alternative to petroleum fuel and can be used in engine
without modification in this paper, the profile of preparation of fatty acid
methyl ethyl ester from castor oil via a base-catalyzed transesterification was
investigated.. The variables chosen for the study were reaction time, oil to
(methanol and ethanol) mixture ratio, and reaction temperature at constant
concentration of KOH(catalyst) .The effects of these variables on viscosity and
specific gravity were studied.