Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Site Investigation


2D and 3D Resistivity Imaging for Soil Site Investigation

Hussein H. Karim; Mahmoud R. AL- Qaissy; Nadia A. Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 249-272

Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) method is one of the most promising
techniques which is well suited to applications in the fields of geohydrology,environmental science and engineering. The present work is aimed to show the efficiency of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) and Induced Polarization (IP) in probing the subsurface soil for site investigation and differentiating the clayey soil layers as it is a common practice to measure the IP sounding along with resistivity for
correct interpretation of field data. The study has demonstrated the practical application of 2D ERI and IP tomography along 7 lines using Wenner- Schlumberger array. The data analysis comprises of 2D inversions using the RES2DINV software, thus 2D electrical resistivity and IP imaging sections have been obtained. The depth of investigation was 4 m, and resistivity values range from <1 to 292 ohm.m. Two electrical layers were recognized: the upper layer with high resistivity (7-71 ohm.m)
represents the loamy soil extends to a depth around 1.3 m; and the second layer with low resistivity (<1-9 ohm.m) represents the clayey layer. Some anomalous low and high electric zones are appeared reflecting the inhomogeneity in deposits. The IP values are ranging from -2 to 15 mV/V showing good confirmation with resistivity data, where high chargeability are associated with low resistivity. The study reveals that combining IP with resistivity surveys is recommended since IP is, sometimes, very effective in relieving ambiguity in interpretation.

Characteristics of 2-D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Survey for Soil

Hussein H. Karim; Imzahim Abdul Kareem Alwan; Mohammed A. Al-Neami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 19, Pages 70-89

The present work is aimed to show the efficiency of 2-D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) in probing the subsurface soil for site investigation, in addition to highlight some capabilities and characteristics of the sections acquired by 2D-ERI survey. In the field survey, where the University of Technology site is chosen for such investigation, ERI technique has been used implementing three common arrangements (Wenner, Wenner-Sclumberger and dipole-dipole). Different resolving powers have been obtained for the used arrays. Wenner-Schlumberger array gives moderate number of possible measurements and has a median depth of investigation of about 10% larger than that for the Wenner array. It is moderately sensitive to both horizontal and vertical structures, thus it might be a good compromise between the Wenner and the dipole-dipole arrays. Good agreements have been obtained between the stratigraphic columns of the site with the inversion models using the different arrays. The distribution of resistivity of the inversion models for the study site reflects the highly inhomogeneous subsurface soil with a wide variation of soil resistivity at different depths.

Differentiating Clayey Soil Layers from Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) and Induced Polarization (IP)

Nadia A. Aziz; Mahmoud R. AL- Qaissy; Hussein H. Karim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3216-3234

Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) method is one of the most promising
techniques which is well suited for the applications in the fields of geohydrology,
environmental science and engineering. The present work is aimed to show the
efficiency of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) and Induced Polarization (IP) in
probing the subsurface soil for site investigation and differentiating the clayey soil
layers as it is a common practice to measure the IP sounding along with resistivity for
correct interpretation of field data. The study has demonstrated the practical
application of 2D ERI and IP tomography along 7 lines using Wenner- Schlumberger
array. The data analysis comprises of 2D inversions using the RES2DINV software,
thus 2D electrical resistivity and IP imaging sections have been obtained. The depth of
investigation was 4 m, and resistivity values range from <1 to 292 ohm.m. Two
electrical layers were recognized: the upper layer with high resistivity (7-71 ohm.m)
represents the loamy soil extends to a depth around 1.3 m; and the second layer with
low resistivity (<1-9 ohm.m) represents the clayey layer. Some anomalous low and
high electric zones are appeared reflecting the inhomogeneity in deposits. The IP
values are ranging from -2 to 17 mV/V showing good confirmation with resistivity
data, where high chargeability are associated with low resistivity. The study reveals
that combining IP with resistivity surveys is recommended since IP is, sometimes, very
effective in relieving ambiguity in interpretation.

Soil Site Investigations Using 2D Resistivity Imaging Technique

Hussein H. Karim; Mohammed A. Al-Neami; Wisam M. Y. Mohammad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 16, Pages 3125-3146

The use of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) technique in combination with
geotechnical and geological data allow the determination of the lithological
composition and detailed internal architecture of the subsurface and understanding the
characterisation and description of the geology of the site. This study is aimed to
evaluate the use of 2D ERI for the detection and characterisation of heterogeneities in
subsurface soil. The survey was conducted using a Wenner-Schlumberger and Wenner
configurations along thirteen ERI parallel profiles which have been investigated in the
project of Al-Obaidi Electrical Transformation Station site to find the resistivity and
depth of soil horizons with their lithological description. Analysis of imaging sections
shows that Wenner-Schlumberger sections are with higher resolving power than
Wenner sections in both horizontal and vertical variations in resistivity reflecting more
pronounced soil horizons with depth, where Wenner sections are limited to the upper
soil layers. Resisitvity values in the imaging sections indicate that the stratigraphy of
the study area is mostly of clayey soil. 4 to 7 distinct geoelectric layers generally
identify the subsurface down to depth of about 20 m. High resistivity values in the top
soil, medium-high resistivity values representing the upper soil layers, while lower
reistivity values are indicated for the lowerest layers. The resistivity values are
inversely proportional to many soil properties such as fine content (clay and silt), salt
content (sulphate and gypsum content) for saturated conditions, water content,
plasticity index (P.I) and void ratio particularly for saturated condition. The resistivity
values are directly proportional to sand content, void ratio, salt contents for dry
condition. The integrated use of ERI technique and conventional site investigation has
led to a far better understanding of the site than could have been achieved using site
investigation methods alone.