Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : pollution


Simulation of Contaminants Transport and Groundwater Flow for Basrah Landfill Site

A.A. Al-Suraifi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 560-570

groundwater aquifers is mostly effected from landfills due to intrusion of leachate from its base b. Active surface of landfills represents main source for leachate generation during rains or may be due to direct contact with groundwater, leading to the transport 5 pollutants from landfill which is intrudes to the aquifer under the landfill. In this research a 3-dimensional simulation models was constructed and calibrated to characterize groundwater flow and leachate pollution transport from Basrah province main landfill site. The selected study area is Al-Rafdhia landfill site, which is lie at Al-Zubair district (southern part of Iraq at Basrah). The model used in the simulation was Visual MODFLOW finite difference approach. All the required landfill and aquifer parameters, stressing and recharge estimates from field and laboratories works, Basrah climate data, observations, soil investigation reports and previous studies for the same region and then used in the model or adjusted by calibration. Six-month observation period was achieved to estimate the monthly state variables data such as heads and physical-chemical leachate and groundwater characteristics by measurement and sampling from the groundwater selected wells. Many soils and water samples were collected to know the aquifer characteristics and analyze the pollutants concentration values.
Accordingly, the calibrated model was used to simulate the flow and pollution transport at current year and then used for prediction of future changes in water levels and landfill contaminant transport in the aquifer for planning period of 15 future years. The final simulation and predication results show that the landfill represent main source of contamination and the pollution would occur in the aquifer at high levels and with approximate lateral transporting of 285 m/year if the current state of solid waste disposal continue with increase of pumping from the aquifer from its current rate with future. The groundwater flow and concentration profiles for pollutants with time and spaces from the pollution sources was predicated and a 3-D representation were done for pollutants spreading for specific pollutants.

Compared the Efficiency of Two Methods (Chemical and Biological) for Removal (Cadmium, Copper and Zinc) from Contaminated Water

Muntaha N. Althweni; Jenan H. Mohammed; Mayami H. Awad; Teba S. Ganee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 4, Pages 100-107

In the present study two methods were used to compare the efficiency of removing heavy metals (cadmium, copper and zinc) from contaminated water, and by applying the method of adding a chemical polymer dynamically (Alginic acid) and the method of adding a biological pure culture type of (green algae), different concentrations, respectively (1.0, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 ppm) was prepared for each element. Both of these methods have been applied and the same working conditions of temperature and pH of the time (72 hours), and then detect the level of residual concentrations of the elements mentioned using Flame atomic spectroscopy technique for measuring the absorbance. The results showed that the two methods effective in drag tested with the superiority of biopolymer algae free in reducing cadmium and copper. While convergence efficient ways to remove the zinc from aqueous media contaminated.

The Effect of Products Cooling on the Pollutants Emission from a Continuous Combustion Chamber

Abdul AL-Kadhim M.Hasan; Abdul Sattar Jawad; Murtadha Shubber Amran

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 12-21

This paper presents the effect of products cooling on the pollutants emission of (carbon monoxide [CO], unburned hydrocarbon [UHC], nitrogen oxide [NOX], and Soot) from a continuous combustion chamber. Products cooling technique was accomplished by installing heat exchanger in the way of the exhaust gases. The water flow rate through heat exchanger was varied from 0 to 30 liters per minute with 10 liters per minute increment. With a droplet size of 80 µm for gas oil fuel and kerosene fuel, and local equivalence ratio was varied from 0.8 to 1.4. When using the products cooling technique it was found that the NOX is inversely proportional with increasing the water flow rate through heat exchanger with the maximum decrease in NOX emissions of 18.76%. But , CO , UHC and soot are directly proportional to increasing the water flow rate through heat exchanger as the maximum increase in CO , UHC and soot were (27.43%,26.32%,19.87%) respectively .also found the emissions from gas oil fuel more than kerosene fuel .

The Effect of Water Injection and Increasing Humidity of the Combustion Air on the Pollutants Emission from a Continuous Combustion Chamber

Abdul Kadhim M. Hasan; Abdul Sattar Jawad M; Murtadha Shubber Amran

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 9, Pages 2244-2254

The present work represents an investigation for the pollutants emission when adding water to air in a continuous combustion chamber. Direct water injection into the chamber with water/fuel ratio up to 0.8, as well as, humidifying the inlet air with water prior to the chamber by changing humidity between 20 to 100%, has been examined at different equivalence ratio with gas oil fuel. The results with fuel droplet size of 80µm and Φ=0.8, show that when water directly injected, NOx and soot will decrease by 53% and 56.6% respectively. Nevertheless, CO and UHC are to increase by 108% and 84% respectively. On the other hand, when inlet air has humidified, the decrease in NOx and soot will be 17.15% and 17.94% respectively. But, CO and UHC show an increase of 13.5% and 8.47% respectively.

Modeling of Pollutants Prediction from Fuel Burning in Oil and Gas Refineries

Qais A. Rishack; Salih E.Najim; Rafid M. Hannun; Nick Syred

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 18, Pages 69-87

Oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2 , (NOx)) are emitted from refineries, not only contribute to the production of photochemical smog at ground level but also cause damage to plant life and add to the problem of acid rain. The small amounts of prompt NO produced in the furnace chambers and oil refineries because the formation of NOx can be attributed to four distinct chemical kinetic processes: thermal NOx formation, prompt NOx formation, fuel NOx formation, and intermediate N2O.
In this paper, the portions of pollutants that resulted in fuel burning (liquid or gas) in oil and gas refinery were studied by modeling of emitted gases in furnace chamber. The case study at Nassiriya power plant with different loads (70 – 210) MW was studied. The method of finite volume was studied to predict the pollutant portions by using FLUENT computer code (FLUENT is one of largest codes of computer programs which solve thousands of flow and combustion cases. The case study was drawn graphically then imported to solve by FLUENT). These types of pollution species are NOx and SOx as the important air pollutant influenced the human health. The numerical analysis in calculating the pollutants of chamber gave the findings of crude oil emission in combustion is higher than that at using gaseous fuel.
So, the methods of decreasing NOx and SOx pollution by water injection and exhaust gas recirculation are used in refinery operation were presented

The Effect of Operating Factors on the Pollutants Emission from a Constant Pressure Burner

Abdul Al-Kadhim M. Hasan; Abdul Sattar Jawad M.Hasan; Riyadh Salman Radhi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 16, Pages 3109-3124

This paper presents the effect of varying operating conditions on pollutants
emission (carbon monoxide [CO], unburned hydrocarbon [UHC], and Soot) from
constant pressure burner. In this research a liquid fuel used are gas oil and
kerosene .The operating conditions which taken in account are atomization
pressure, inlet air temperature, equivalence ratio, as well as type of fuel.
It is found that the Carbon monoxide and Unburned hydrocarbon are inversely
proportional to inlet air temperature with maximum decrease of (95%, 43%)
respectively. In contrast, soot is directly proportional to inlet air temperature as the
maximum increase in soot emission is 170%. Carbon monoxide , Unburned
hydrocarbon , and Soot are inversely proportional to Atomization pressure as the
maximum decrease in Carbon monoxide , Unburned hydrocarbon, and soot
emissions are (56.5%, 37.4%, 76%) respectively. The relation between Carbon
monoxide, Unburned hydrocarbon, and soot with equivalence ratio is directly
proportional as maximum increase in Carbon monoxide, and Unburned
hydrocarbon emissions are (130%, 81 %,) respectively, while soot emissions is 190
%. Emissions from a constant pressure burner depend on the physical and chemical
properties of fuel used, such as (viscosity, surface tension, volatility, the ratio of
hydrogen atoms number to carbon atoms number (H/C), and lower heating value).
it is found that the maximum increase in Carbon monoxide, Unburned
hydrocarbon, soot emissions from gas oil are generally higher than those from
kerosene fuel by (72%,17.5%,38%) respectively`.

Production of Digital Map for the Sources of Pollution in Nassiriya Marshes by Using “GIS”

Ali Karem Shaesh; Abbas Jawad Kadhem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 8, Pages 121-136

Iraqi marshes are one of the most important biodiversity in the world. They had many problems: bad environmental conditions, as well as decreasing of the amount of water that reaches marshes after restoration, in addition to the increase in the source of pollution around the marshes as a result of villages, hospitals, factories ….etc. All these reasons cause dispersion of pollutants in the marshes. This research study the source of pollution such as ( industrial, agricultural, medical, political and waste water) in Nassiriya marshes and project them on the digital maps to generate a final map represents all the sources of pollutants in this region. The research shows the environmental and medical effects of this pollutants and comprising them with the Iraqi environmental legislations.

Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Exhaust and Noise Emissions from 4-Stroke S.I.Engine

Maher A.R. Sadiq; Yassar K. Ali; Aimen Rashad Noor

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1438-1450

Considering pollution problems and energy crisis today, investigations
have been concentrated on lowering the concentration of toxic components in
combustion products and decreasing fuel consumption by using renewable
alternative fuels. In the present work, the effect of ethanol addition to gasoline on
the exhaust emissions and noise level has been experimentally investigated at
various engine loads.
Results of the engine test indicated that using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels
increases the power output of the engine dramatically (up to 50 %). While the CO
and HC emissions decrease as a result of the leaning effect caused by the ethanol
addition; and the CO2 emission increases because of the improvement of
combustion. Also, it was noted that the noise level emission increases slightly with
the increase of ethanol content. Finally, the results showed that ethanol can be used
as a supplementary fuel to gasoline in modern spark ignition engines without major
changes, and it can help to save our environment from toxic pollutants and to save
a considerable part of the available oil.

Effect Of Soil Consistency On Flow Characteristics Of Acids Through Cohesive Soils

Husam Hikmat Bakir; Falah Hassan Rahil; Mohammed Yousif Fattah; Mohammed Abullateef Al-Neami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1185-1200

The consistency of cohesive soil depends to a large extent on the structure of soil particles
which may be arranged in two systems; dispersed or flocculated. The presence of salts or
acids between the soil particles will alter the arrangement of particles through affecting the
attractive and repulsive forces.
In this paper, a program of laboratory tests is carried out at the University of
Technology/ Baghdad on cohesive soils of different values of Atterberg limits. Samples of
these soils were tested for grain size distribution (sieve analysis and hydrometer). The
falling head permeability test was carried out to determine the coefficient of permeability of
the soils to HCl acid.
The soil parameters determined in the laboratory will be used in the numerical
analysis.The aim of this study is to apply the finite element method to study the steady flow
of pollutants (acids) in a confined aquifer. The program (MULAT) is used for this purpose.
The path of flow of the acid through the soil is traced.
The basic problem solved in this paper is a one of linear flow in a single confined
aquifer. It represents the case of leakage of acids from storage tank and flow of the acids
through the foundation soil. It was concluded from the finite element results that the
maximum head caused by the flow of the acid through the soil decreases with the increase of
the coefficient of permeability and the plasticity index of the polluted soil.