Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Taguchi method

Optimization Process of Double Spots Welding of High Strength Steel Using in the Automotive Industry

Hayder H. Khaleel; Ibtihal A. Mahmood; Fuad Khoshnaw

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 110-120
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134325.1236

Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is one of the most important welding techniques used in the automotive industry because it is an economic process and is suitable for many materials. Many parameters affect the mechanical and microstructural properties of nugget formation and its strength, like welding current, electrode force, and welding time. Therefore, optimizing the RSW process to get the optimum welding parameters is necessary for automobile manufacturing companies. High-strength steel is widely used in the automotive industry because of its superior characteristics such as high strength-weight ratio, ductility, fatigue, and corrosion resistance. This paper presents an optimization process for RSW using the Taguchi method for high strength low alloy steel (HSLA) DOCOL 500 LA, considered a new steel grade. Two spots were used in this work.The mechanical and microstructural tests are achieved to get the maximum nugget strength, nugget diameter, different welding zones microstructures, microhardness values, and failure modes. The results showed that optimum welding parameters were welding current of 8800 Amp, welding time of 20 cycles, and electrode force of 1900 N. The failure mode for optimum conditions was a full pullout with tearing of the welded sheets because of high plastic deformation and absorbed energy. The maximum microhardness value is in the fusion zone, the heat-affected region, and finally, in the base material due to the nugget zone's rapid melting and solidification process.  

The Effect of Process Parameters on the Compression Property of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Produced by 3D Printer

Sabreen A. Oudah; Hind B. Al-Attraqchi; Nassir A. Nassir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i1.2118

Additive manufacturing (AM) by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) provides an innovative manufacturing method for complex geometry components. 3D printers have become easily accessible to the public. The technology used by these 3D printers is Fused Deposition Modelling. The majority of these 3D printers mainly use acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) to fabricate 3D objects. This study aims to investigate the influence of some printing parameters like infill pattern (Tri-Hexagon, Zig - Zag, and Gyroid), infill density (25%, 50%, and 75%), and layer thickness (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mm) on the compressive strength of ABS materials. The design of the experiment was achieved by Taguchi method. A total of nine specimens were fabricated with different processing parameters using a commercial FDM 3D printer and then were tested according to the ASTM D695 standard. Findings presented in this research showed that the compressive strength of printed parts depends on the printing parameters employed. Analysis of variance revealed that the infill density is the most sensitive parameter among the three parameters examined. The optimal printing parameters were (0.3 mm 75 %, Gyroid) for improving compression strength according to signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio analysis. Experiment number (9) showed the highest compression strength with a value of 44.64 MPa.

Humidification Effect on the Performance and Emissions of (DI) Diesel Engine Running on Diesel Fuel with Biodiesel Blended Nano Additives

Hussein Jumaa; Mahmoud A. Mashkour

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 5A, Pages 790-803
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i5A.1935

The effect of humidification of the air on the performance of a compression ignition engine operating on diesel, biodiesel with nano additives was investigated. The experiment was carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, naturally aspirated water-cooled, direct injection Ricardo (E6/US) diesel engine at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and varying loads. A mixture of Biodiesel (waste cooking oil) and diesel fuel by four ratios (B5, B10, B15, and B20) was used in the experiment. Besides, five concentrations of Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3, with particle size 20 nm) as fuel-additives were prepared (10 ppm, 30 ppm, 50 ppm, 70 ppm, and 100 ppm), and added to the test fuels (Bio-Diesel).  Taguchi Method by DOE was used for the optimization in this investigation. The results of Taguchi Method experiments identified the biodiesel (B20), nano additive (100 ppm), relative humidity (65%). The experimental results manifested that BTE improved by 17.62% and BSFC decreased by 12.72%, while NOx and PM reduced by 8.45%, 24.17%, respectively.

Parametric Study on Buckling Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Thin-Walled Lipped Channel Beam with Perforations Subjected to Combined Loading

Dalya S. Khazaal; Hussein M. AL-Khafaji; Imad A. Abdulsahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 1A, Pages 89-103
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i1A.1710

The objective of the research presented in this paper is to investigate the buckling behavior of a perforated thin-walled lipped channel beam subjected to combined load. A nonlinear finite element method was used to analyze the buckling behavior of the beam. Experimental tests were made to validate the finite element simulation. Three factors with three levels for each factor were chosen to examine their influence on the buckling behavior of the beam and these factors are: the shape of holes, opening ratio and the spacing ratio of . The finite elements outcome was analyzed by using Taguchi method to identify the best set of three-parameter combinations for optimum critical buckling load. The analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) was implemented to determine the contribution of each parameter on buckling strength. Results showed that the mode of buckling failure of the perforated beam is lateral-torsional buckling and the hexagonal hole shape, =1.7 and = 1.3 were the best combination of parameters that gives the best buckling strength. The results also showed that the shape of holes is the most influential on buckling behavior of the perforated beam for this case of loading.

Erosion Wear Behavior of Natural and Industrial Material for Polymer Matrix Composite by Using Taguchi Analysis

Marwa S. Atallah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 7, Pages 1016-1025
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i7A.558

The behavior of the erosion wear for samples manufactured by hand layup method of epoxy-supported fiberglass, eggshells and calcium carbonate particles were investigated. The test was performed in accordance with the experimental designs Taguchi (L 9) MINITAB (19) to select samples that have the resistance to erosion under the influence of factors. The erosion rate was assessed under the influence of three factors: weight fraction (2% to 8% eggshells and CaCO3 particles), sand size (450, 650, 850 μm) and angles (30º, 60º, 90º) with a fixed face distance of 30 cm, 10 hours and a flow rate of 45 L/min. The results revealed that the rate of erosion is lower for samples consisting of enhanced epoxy resins (eggshell molecules and CaCO3) with chopped fiber glass compared to unfilled samples. Also from these results, it should be noted that the maximum erosion rate was when the weight fraction (2%), the sand size of 850 μm and the angle of 90º, while the minimum rate of erosion was when weight fraction (8%), sand size 650 μm and 30º angle. In this work, the sample of composite materials behaves in a semi- ductile manner.

Optimization Using Taguchi Method for Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bio Mimicking Polymeric Matrix Composite for Orthodontic Application

Jenan S. Kashan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 5A, Pages 181-187
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.5A.5

This work take in consideration the application of Taguchi optimization methodology in optimizing the parameters for processing (composition, compounding pressure) and their effects on the output physical (Density and true porosity) properties and mechanical(fracture strength and microhardness) properties for the Nano HA,Al2O3 fillers reinforced HDPE hybrid composite material for orthodontic application. An orthogonal array of the Taguchi approach was used to analyses the effect of the processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties. On the other hand, the surface roughness and particle size distribution were also calculated to study their effect on the output properties. The result shows that the Taguchi approach can determine the best combination of processing parameters that can provide the optimal physical and mechanical conditions, which are the optimum values (the optimum composition was15HA/ 5Al2O3/80HDPE, and optimum compounding pressure was102 MPa.

Optimization of Dry Sliding Wear Process Parameters for Al-Mg-Si Hybrid Composites Using Taguchi Method

Israa A. Alkadir; Hanan K. Azeez

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 7A, Pages 812-822
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.7A.15

The aim of the presents study was to investigates the influence of different sliding velocity 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 m/sec, applied load 5, 10, N and time 10, 20, 30 min on wear rate of Al-Mg-Si alloy reinforced with varying weight fraction of TiO₂/SiC 1.5:0 ,3:0 , 4.5:0 , 0:1.5 , 0:3 , 0:4.5 , 1.5:1.5 , 3:3 , 4.5:4.5 wt.% with the same particle size (>75μm) by using pin-on-disk techniques. In this research Al-Mg-Si alloy TiO₂/SiC hybrid composites was prepared by vortex technique. The primary objective is to use taguchi method for predicting the better parameter that give the highest wear resistance. A L9 orthogonal array was selected for each present to analysis of data and use ANOVA to determine parameters significantly influencing the wear rate of hybrid composite. Optical microscope and SEM with EDS examination were utilized to study the worn surface. The experimental and analytical results showed that the taguchi method was successful in predicting the parameters that give the highest properties and the volume fraction was the most influential parameter on the wear rate. The results demonstrated that when the applied load and time increased the wear rate increasing, but when the sliding velocity increased the wear rate decreasing and showed the minimum wear in hybrid composite with 4.5% reinforcement this observed with highest ratio of S/N 156.787.

Optimization of MRR and Surface Roughness for 7024 AL-alloy in EDM Process

M.M. Abdulrazaq; S.K. Ghazi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 5, Pages 546-553
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.5A.15

Electro discharge machining is major non-traditional operations for cutting the materials due to its suitability and benefits. The experimental work of this paper deals with electrico discharge machining (EDM). A system for machining in this process has been developed. Many parameters are studied such as current, time on and time off. Different current rates are used ranging from (30, 36 and 42) Amp, found that low current gives less material removal rates and good surface roughness. The results showing that maximum MRR is achieved (0.525) mm3/min when machining current (42), time on (150), and time off (50) while good surface roughness (2.11 μm) when machining current (30), time on (50), and time off (25).The level of importance of the machining parameters for surface roughness and material removal rate is determined by using Taguchi design experiments and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Optimization Corrosion Protection Parameters of steel pipeline By Using Taguchi Experimental Design

Naser Korde Zedin; Muhammed A.Mahdi; Ruaa Abd Al Kaream Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 4, Pages 754-761
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112936

Cathodic Protection System (CPS) is used to reduce corrosion by minimizing the difference in potential between anode and cathode. Two types of Cathodic protection systems are usually applied: The galvanic protection systems use the sacrificial anodes, the other system is impressed current (that used in this paper), and this can be achieved by applying a current to the structure to be protected from electrical source. The main objective of this work is to determine experiments designed according to Taguchi method and Analysis the results by MINITAB program. Experiments have been conducted by using L9 orthogonal array with three parameters (concentrations of NaCl solution, Temperate and Speed of Solution) at three levels (low, medium and high). The result of research based on the signal to noise ratio (S/N) depending on the condition smaller is better approach. The results of this paper show that the significant factor is NaCl wt% and the optimum combination of parameters which were reducing the corrosion are temperature (35 °C), the speed of solution (15 r.p.m) and the NaCl concentration (20 %wt).

Effect of Powder Concentration in PMEDM on Machining Performance for Different Die steel Types

Maan Aabid Tawfiq; Azzam Sabah Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 9, Pages 2174-2186

Electric discharge machining(EDM) is one of the nonconventional machining process which has been used in manufacturing complex shapes on hard material that are difficult to cut by conventional processes, especially, die casting, parts of aircraft, medical equipment, automobile industries. Powder mixed electric discharge machining(PMEDM), has emerged as one of the advanced techniques in the direction of the enhancement of the capabilities of EDM. The objective of the present research is to study the influence of process parameters such as peak current, pulse on time, manganese,aluminum, and aluminum-manganese mixing powder concentration on machining performance of different types of die steel (AISID3,AISID6,H13)with round copper electrode(20 mm diameter) on machining performance. Experiments have been designed using Taguchi method. Taguchi L27 orthogonal array has been selected for five factors 3 levels design. The machining performance has evaluated in terms of metal removal rate (MRR).It is found that manganese powder concentration mixed in dielectric fluid significantly affect the machining performance, maximum (MRR) is obtained at a high peak current(12 A), pulse on(200µs), and (4g/L) concentration of manganese powder,the optimum MRR is 17.56mm3/min with percent of error about 5.61% compared with the Experimental value.

Determining the Effect of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness in two Point Incremental Sheet Metal Forming Process using the Taguchi Method

Harith Yarub Maan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 7, Pages 1569-1582

The main aim of this study is determining the effect of process parameters on surface roughness in two-point incremental sheet metal forming process using the Taguchi method. The experimental plan and analysis were basedon the mixed L18 Taguchi orthogonal array withfour forming parameters, tool radius (r), feed rate (f), stepover (Δz) and type of support (full and partial support) were analyzed andpyramid shape was used (57°) wall angle. The influence of the process parameters has been investigated and optimum forming condition for minimizing the surface roughness is evaluated. The analysis results show that the stepover has the highest effect on the surface roughness and followed by tool radius, feed rate and die.The result shows that the errorof predicted accuracy for the surface roughness is (1.2%).

Optimizing Coating Process Parameters by Using Taguchi Experimental Design to Increasing Wear Resistance of Steel CK50

Mouhamed M. Hamadi; Amjad B. Abdulghafour; Haider. N. Ugla

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 12, Pages 2862-2873

The present investigation aims to increase the wear resistance for steel CK50 by using Hard Chromium electro plating process. The wear behavior of the specimen was investigated using pin-on-disk where the samples sliding against a steel disk under fixed conditions. The experiments designed according to Taguchi method several experiments have been carried based on an orthogonal array L9 with three parameters (time, current and temperature) at three levels (low, medium and high).The result of research based on the signal to noise ratio (S/R) depending on the condition smaller is the better approach, where the best optimal coating parameters have been arrived at (t2, A2, Temp1) i.e. time 20min, current 30 A/dcm2 and temperature 45 C° from the maximum values of average (S/N). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is applied to find out the significance and percentage contribution of each parameter. It has been observed that temperature has maximum contribution on Cr - coating process.

Optimizing Overcut Parameter of Micro-Holes Machining by EDM Using Taguchi Method

Laith A. Mohammed; Shukry H. Aghdeab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 298-304

In this paper Taguchi method was performed to estimate the optimum overcut parameter for Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) to obtain micro-holes of copper alloy workpieces. Taguchi method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyses the effect of each parameter on the machining characteristics and to predict the optimal choice for each machining parameter (current, gap distance and machining time), and analyzed the effect of these parameters on the overcut parameter. The
analysis shows that, the current significantly affects the overcut parameter.

Optimization of Cyclic Oxidation Parameters in Steel-T21 for Aluminization Coating Using Taguchi-ANOVA analysis by MINITAB13

Abbas Khammas Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 12, Pages 2367-2384

The increasing demands for high quality coatings has made it inevitable that
the surface coating industry would put more effort into precisely controlling the
coating process relative to media for which is subjected. Statistical design of
experiments is an effective method for finding the optimum cyclic oxidation
parameters for aluminization coating. In the present investigation, an attempt is made
to produce high-quality aluminization coating by optimizing the cyclic oxidation
parameters following a (L9-33) Taguchi-design approach. (L9-33) Taguchi orthogonal
array has been used to determine the signal to noise ratio (S/N). The oxidation
parameters that were varied include the Temperature (600,700,800oC), Time
(15,20,25hr at 5hr cycle) and Media (Air,CO2,H2O). The coating characteristics were
qualitified with respect to parabolic oxidation rate constant (KP). The performance of
the coating was qualitatively evaluated using cyclic oxidation testing. Analysis of the
experiments using Taguchi method indicated that 800oC,25hr and CO2 media are to be
the optimum cyclic oxidation conditions for pack aluminization. The contribution of
each of these parameters to the parabolic oxidation rate constant (KP) was determined
employing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the effect of the level of each
parameter was determined using Taguchi analysis. ANOVA results show that
temperature and media are the parameters that most significantly affect the parabolic
oxidation rate constant (KP) compared to time.