Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : gel

Gas Sensitivity of ITO Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

R. J . Halbos; S. AL-Algawi; R.T. Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 10, Pages 981-986
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.10A.3

Indium oxide and indium tin oxide composite (ITO) were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating (SGDC) technique. The particles annealed at (200 ◦C, 400 ◦C). The structure and surface morphology of particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), FT-IR and UV/visible measurements. The XRD and AFM indicate decreasing in the particle size and improve of optical and electrical properties of composite with increasing of tin oxide addition. The hall measurement were used to obtain information about the type of conductivity of indium oxide and indium tin oxide thin films and carrier concentration and mobility and resistivity, the results of Hall measurements show that the In2O3 and ITO composite have n-type. The thin film of composite ITO at composition (80:20) mole ratio has high sensitivity toward CO gas compared with pure indium oxide.

Synthesis of Dopant Zno Thin Films with Al Using Dip Coating for Gas Sensors

S.H. Sabeeh; R.H. Jassam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 842-844
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.9

The sol-gel technique (dip coating method) used to synthesize pure Zinc Oxide and Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide thin films on glass substrate for gas sensing application. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as source of Zinc ions. The influence of annealing temperature of pure ZnO thin films with three different temperatures (300,400,and 500 ) °C, Aluminum dopant concentration with two different concentration (3wt% and 5wt% ) and annealing temperature for AZO thin films with three different temperatures (300,400,and 500 ) °C on gas sensing properties was studied. The results show that ZnO was to be sensitive toward CO gas and its sensitivity decrease with increase in annealing temperature of pure ZnO and (5wt.%) AZO thin films. It is found that the sensitivity of pure ZnO thin films decrease from 67% at 300 °C to 54% and 38% at 400 and 500 °C respectively. Likewise, for 5wt. % AZO thin film the sensitivity improved by increase the Aluminum dopant concentration with fixed annealing temperature 500 °C. It is found that the sensitivity increase form 49% to 57% when doped with Al at (3 wt. %) and (5 wt. %) respectively.

Characterization of the Structural and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductive Oxides Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

Ali J Addie; Azhar I Hassan; Saleema S Saad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 6, Pages 209-216

Nano crystalline powder of the System Cu-Al-O have been prepared by Sol-Gel technique, copper nitrate and aluminum nitrate have adopted as raw materials for the reaction, and subsequently solid state reactions have used to synthesize different compounds and phases at the calcination stage. Effects of calcination temperature and time in the range 800-1100oC and 1hr-6hr respectively have been investigated. XRD results show that the system have a multiphase and it depends on the calcination time and temperature, the higher the temperature and time the higher the percentage of the compound CuAlO2, whereas the SEM microscopy show that the Nano powder have particle size of 40nm, and Raman spectroscopy reveals the presence of Eg and A1g modes which belong to the structure CuAlO2. The work emphasize that the control of the technique parameters could provide high degree of control on the final required phases and structures.

The Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural & Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Technique

Selma M.H. AL-Jawad; Abdulhussain K. Elttayf; Amel S. Sabr

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 4, Pages 490-498
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.4B.6

In this work, studying the structural and optical Nano crystalline SnO2 thin films grown on cleaned glass substrates by using sol- gel (dip coating) technique. It is worthy to say that the thickness of the deposited film was of the order of (300-400)nm . The films are annealed in air at , 300◦C, 400◦C and 500◦C temperatures for 60 minutes. The films that are analyses by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , atomic force microscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy technique. The size of crystalline was observed, as well as, so as to increase with increasing annealing temperature . XRD analysis reveals that the whole films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure with preferred orientation of (110),(101),(200) and (211) . The increase of annealing temperature leads to raise the diffraction peaks and decrease of FWHM. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the average grain size was increase with the increase in annealing temperature. Spectra of transmittance and absorbance was recorded at wavelengths range (300-1000)nm .The optical properties showed high transmission at visible regions. The optical band gap energy was found to be (3.5 , 3.75 , 3,87) eV at annealing temperature (300,400,500 )°C respectively.

Judd–Ofelt analysis of Spectroscopic properties of Nd+3:SiO2 Prepared via Sol-Gel

Mohammed. A. Hamza; Majeda A. Ameen; Hanaa M. Yaseen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 5, Pages 848-855

Doped and undoped nano particular silicate dioxide was prepared via sol–gel method under varying conditions. The optical properties of prepared samples were investigated by a variety of techniques, including X-ray diffraction, UV- Visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The peak of the fluorescence spectrum was recorded at the wavelength around to 1048nm, which it is close to known fluorescence peaks of Nd:YAG crystal in NIR region. A Judd-Ofelt analysis is performed to calculate the spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ions embedded in SiO2 and compare it with spectroscopic properties of Nd:YAG crystal.The conclusions behind this study show that the doped silicate samples have a high peak emission cross-section σp , which gives an acceptable indication in the direction of using Sol-Gel technique to prepare Nd:SiO2 as a solid state laser active medium.

Coating of Carbon Fibers With Calcium Phosphate by Sol- Gel Method

Sewench N. Rafeeq; Wafaa A. Husaien; Russel Rushdi Ghanim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1117-1128
DOI: 10.30684/etj.32.5A.3

Sol-gel technique has been used to coat carbon fibers with calcium phosphate to improve the esthetic of black carbon fibers as it's biocompatible. To improve bonding between carbon fibers and prepared calcium phosphate powders, the surface of carbon fibers has been treated with para-aminobenzoic acid. The structural tests include: (SEM, XRD, AFM and FTIR). The morphology of the coating layers has been examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The crystallized phase composition of coatings has been identified by x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The grain size of dried and heat treated calcium phosphate coat has been estimated by atomic force microscope (AFM) and fourier transform ــ infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis which support and verify the x-ray diffraction findings.

Synthesis of B4C/YTZP Composite Powder and Studying Effect of its Addition on Mechanical Properties of B4C

Fadhil A. Chyad; Mohammed H. AL-Taie; Hussein AlaaJaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1158-1170
DOI: 10.30684/etj.32.5A.7

In this research B4C powder have been coated with yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (YTZP) (ZrO2 – 6wt% Y2O3) by using sol-gel method in order to obtain on composite powder (B4C core/ YTZP shell, 1/1 wt%). Zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl2.8H2O) and yttrium nitrate (Y(NO3)3.6H2O) were used as the precursors for synthesis of the YTZP compound. The coated B4C powder was then used as additive powder to B4C. It was mixed with different percentages for making ceramic–ceramic composite samples. The YTZP weight percentages added to the B4C were in the range (0–12.5) wt%. The samples sintered by using spark plasma sintering technique at 1800 and 1900°C for 5 min. Density and mechanical properties (Vickers microhardness, fracturetoughness and fracturestrength) for the sintered samples were measured. The results show that the best YTZP additions to the B4C that have good mechanical properties were ranged 5 – 7.5 wt%.

Developing the Alumina Hybrid Sol-Gel Coating for Steel Oxidation Protection at High Temperatures

Atia; Mohammed Hussein J. Al

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 4, Pages 744-758

The use of nano alumina thin film by hybrid sol-gel route to protect steel from high-temperature oxidation is limited due to the low thermal stability of this coat. In this work, study has been conducted to minimize this effect. The chemical compositions of solid gel (xerogel) obtained from normal alumina hybrid sol-gel were thermally varied, and then recombining with water to form the modified coating solutions at constant concentration of 0.25mol/l alumina. Laser diffraction technique has been used to measure the growth of clusters sizes in different modified solutions. X-ray diffraction analysis to characterize the alumina phase's changes as a function of temperatures. Also gravimetric weight change method to determine the oxidation rate of steel before and after coating. The results showed five changes in alumina phase during heating to 9500C, which are similar to that recorded for the natural ore of boehmite, and the partial removal of non stable by-products constituents associated with xerogel has considerable effect on the degree of particles aggregation and agglomeration in solutions. This worked to improve the thermal stability of the coating layer, and show considerable resistance to cracks formation. At 40-50% removal, the oxidation rate of HSLA steel specimens was enhanced by 88 % at 9500C compared to the steel before coating.

Synthesis and Studying SomeMechanical Properties of Nanocomposite

Fadhil A. Chyad; Abdul-Raheem K.Abid Ali; Auday A. Mehatlaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 7, Pages 1221-1228
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.7A1

This study aims to synthesis a nanocomposite from Al2O3 – Cr2O3 and studying some of its mechanical properties like microhardness and fracture strength.
X-Ray diffraction patterns shows a good crystallinity of the composite with very sharp and neat peaks. TEM photographs shows the good distribution of the particles which have an average particle size of (3-6 nm). The microhardness is increased with the increasing of sintering temperatures having the height value at 15% chromia while the fracture strength behaves as a bell shape having again the height value at 15% chromia.

Comprehensive Electrochemical Evaluation of Protective Coatings Properties by Sol-Gel Route for Stainless Steel Corrosion

Atia; Mohammed Hussein J. Al

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 71-86
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.4A.15

Sol gel nano ceramic coatings have been applied on stainless steel to develop their biological characteristics and increase resistance to corrosion and wear. In this work nine electrochemical parameters were calculated, adopted to set a comprehensive evaluation map for protective properties of the coatings obtained based on occurrence degree of cracks, porosity, general and localized corrosion by using d.c. Potentiostate utilized for measuring the polarization curve in 3.5% NaCl solution at 250C for a single alumina layer deposited on stainless steel specimens by the dipping technique from four solutions containing different alumina concentration 0.25, 0.26, 0.61 and 0.93 mole/liter prepared by dissolving aluminum isopropoxide in water, the coats were then heat treated to 6000C. The results showed the possibility of obtaining clear protective properties that facilitate the comparison between the types of thin coatings deposited on the surfaces of the stainless steel by sol gel method.