Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Nanoparticles

Optimization of Curing Process for Production of Jatropha Oil Bio-Based Resin Decorated With Nano-Al2O3 and Mechanical Characterization

Agita T. Setiawan; Zurina Z. Abidin; Farah Ezzah Ab Latif; Khalina Abdan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.133859.1209

Concerns on the environment, health and safety issues posed by synthetic resins has amplified numerous efforts of producing resin from various renewable sources. The use of plant oil as potential source of resin has attracted interest from various researchers. Jatropha Oil is a competitive source to petroleum counterparts due to its availability, biodegradability, low eco-toxicity but exhibit poor mechanical properties among many. The objective of this study is to study the effect of adding nanoparticles as reinforcing fillers to bio-based resin from Epoxidized crude Jatropha Oil (ECJO) to improve its mechanical performance. Various loadings of 0% to 4% of Al2O3 nanoparticles was tested on epoxy bio-resin. Later the specimens fabricated were cured and characterized for its mechanical properties. Addition of 1 wt% of Al2O3 nanoparticles improved the tensile strength of a bio-based epoxy resin to tensile stress of 29.37±2.00 MPa, elastic with an elastic modulus of 840.80±124.53 MPa. Further characterization at optimum addition of nano-Al2O3 resulted a glass transition temperature of 37.95˚C. In overall, the inclusion of nano-Al2O3 has definitely improved the mechanical properties of the material which will be useful for further application material engineering.

The permeation and Separation Characteristics of Polymeric Membranes Incorporated with Nanoparticles for Dye Removal and Interaction Mechanisms between Polymer and Nanoparticles: A Mini Review

Dalya D. Al-Araji; Faris H. Al-Ani; Qusay F. Alsalhy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1399-1411
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132572.1129

Dyes are an essential group of organic pollutants with a long history of harming aquatic life and humans. Prior to disposal, polluted dye wastewater must be adequately treated to prevent adverse impacts on persons and the environment. Although there are several techniques for dye removal, most of them share a similar drawback: they generate secondary pollution to the environment. Membrane separation is highlighted in this article because it is one of the most efficient dye removal techniques available nowadays due to its high removal capacity, ease of operation, and clean water generation. Polymeric membranes are frequently used in membrane-based separations because of their greater flexibility, ease of pore formation process, and lower cost than other membrane materials. Although polymeric membranes are preferable materials for membrane production, they are usually hydrophobic and, hence, sensitive to fouling. Therefore, much research has been done to modify the polymeric membrane. More recently, metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been introduced to the polymer matrix to minimize fouling potential and enhance membrane performance. This study describes several polymeric membranes utilized in dye separation that have been modified using nanomaterial. Also, the study illustrates how adding these components affects the membranes' performance in rejecting the dye.Additionally, it highlights the importance of membrane-nanomaterial interactions and the effect of these materials' additions on membrane performance over time.

Improved Water-Based Mud Rheological Properties and Shale-Inhibition Behavior by Using Aluminum Oxide and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Hasan A. Abbood; Ibtehal K. Shakir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1171-1178
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134176.1226

Nanotechnology can be used to develop drilling fluid additives that can improve the drilling fluid's properties. Using two types of nanoparticle (NP) additives in water-based drilling fluids have been studied in this paper. Three major drilling mud systems, namely potassium chloride (KCl) as a basic mud, KCl/aluminum oxide (Al2O3) NPs, and KCl/iron (Fe2O3) NPs, were prepared and studied for enhancement of rheological properties and shale inhibition. It was found that the drilling mud contained NPs in concentrations of 0.25, 0. 5, 0.75, and 1 g. Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs added to KCl/polymer mud systems resulted in a 50% and 30% change in shale volume, respectively. The results demonstrated that incorporating NPs into the KCL mud system enhanced shale inhibition. Adding NPs to the KCL-WBM increased yield point, plastic viscosity, and gel strength. The COF of KCL-polymer was reduced by 48% and 34% when added Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs at 0.5 and 0.75g, respectively. When Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs were used, particularly at 1g, the amount of mud filtration decreased from 13.1ml to 8.8 ml and 8.4 ml, respectively. Overall, it was found that adding Al2O3 and Fe2O3 NPs to the KCl-WBM can improve rheological, swelling, and filtration properties as well as lubrication.

Remove Liquid Radioactive Wastes Utilizing Nanofiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Microfiltration Membranes

Alanood A. Alsarayreh; Taisir K. Abbas; Saleh O. Alaswad; Sabad e-Gul; A D. Bajoga

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 9, Pages 1231-1259
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134025.1218

Radioactive waste is generated from fuel cycle processes in nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants (NPPs) in electrical power production, radioisotope manufacturing in nuclear research centers, and medical, industrial, and agricultural applications. Also, natural chain-linked radioisotopes (NORM) are generated from processing and burning fossil fuels and producing oil and natural gas. Therefore, a planned and integrated radioactive waste management strategy must be adopted to protect human health and the environment from the dangers of this waste through published research on a comprehensive radioactive waste management strategy and the testing and dissemination of several treatment options. The main objective is to draw the scientific community's attention to the possibility of using pressure-driven membrane separation in treating radioactive wastewater compared to conventional methods. This short review addresses developments in the treatment and removal of radioactive effluents (LRWs) by pressure-driven membrane methods and improvements in routine treatment of dissolved radioactive ions by chemical treatment of the feed solution followed by membrane separation. Also, recent advances in treating radioactive waste use nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated in polymeric membranes.

Characterization and Mechanical Properties of the ZA-12 Hybrid Composites Reinforced with Nano Ceramic Particles

Aveen K. Yawer; Niveen J. Abdulkader; Dr. Ahmed A. Zainalaadbeen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 4A, Pages 642-652
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i4A.1945

In this work, nanosized Boron nitride and silicon carbide reinforced ZA - 12 matrix hybrid composites were produced using stir casting technique with using of aluminum scrap (AA 2024), pure Al (electrical wires) and zinc scraps. Microstructure Observation was revealed by using scanning electron microscopy, and the analysis showed a uniform distribution of (SiC and BN) hybrid nanoparticles for the Zn-Al matrix. Also, an optical microscope was used to display the dendritic structure and reinforcement particles that dispersed uniformly in the matrix. Mechanical tests results confirmed that the hardness and the compression was increased with increasing the hybrid nanoparticle's percentage, whereas the wear rate decreased as the reinforcing materials increased. Since nanoparticles restrict dislocation movement, the mechanical properties are enhanced. The improvement ratio in hardness after addition was 26%., and in wear rate was 24% and for the compression strength the improvement was (19%).

Synthesis and Characterization of CoFe2O4Nanoparticles Prepared by Sol-GelMethod

Rihab Jabbar; Sabah H. Sabeh; Awham M. Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2B, Pages 47-53
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i2B.252

Cobalt Ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by Sol-Gel precipitation method. Two samples were synthesized and sintered with different sintering temperatures; sample A at 400 °C and sample B at 800 °C for two hours. The prepared samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and AFM, Compressive test and Micro-hardness. The result showed as the sintering temperatures increased, the crystallite size increased from 10.07 nm to 15.14 nm. FTIR spectra showed two strong absorption bands in the range of 800 - 400 cm-1, confirmed formation of spinel ferrites NPs. SEM and AFM micrographs showed that the samples have an approximately spherical shape. The mechanical properties of CoFe2O4 NPs were not widely studied. Therefore, in this work, the mechanical properties (Compressive strength and Micro-hardness) of prepared material studied as an important contribution for researchers to focus on mechanical properties of CoFe2O4 NPs. Where the mechanical result showed that both the compressive strength was increased (from 4.42 to 10.57 N/mm2) and Micro-hardness (from 10.33 to 174.4 N/mm2) with increasing sintering temperature.

In Vivo Effect of Different Doses of Silver Nanoparticles on the Seminiferous Tubules in Albino Rats: Histopathological Study

Ruqayah A. Salman; Abdulrahman K. Ali; Amenah Ali Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1B, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i1B.1694

The study aims to investigate the effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the seminiferous tubules in Albino rats. Several in vitro studies have been performed in different cell models, using various nanoparticles. Pure and spherical AgNPs with an average size of 30 nm, was injected into two groups of male albino rats (6 rats for each group) in different doses. Histopathological changes in testis tissues were showed a harmful effect of the silver nanoparticles, manifested by reducing the number of spermatogenic cells, and a decrease in the number of leyidg´s cells (group 1), and hypotrophy in seminiferous and enlargement in interstitial spaces in group 2.

Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Adding Alumina to Diesel Fuel on the Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics

Sadiq T. Bunyan; Abed AL-Khadim M. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 4A, Pages 523-529
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i4A.498

The present experimental work is conducted to examine the influence of adding Alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles to diesel fuel on the characteristic of the emissions and engine performance. The size of nanoparticles which have been added to diesel fuel to obtain nano-fuel is 20 nm. Three doses of Aluminum oxide were prepared (25, 50 and 100) ppm. The nanoparticles mixed with fuel by mechanical homogenous (manual electrical mixer) and ultrasonic processor. The study reveals that the adding of Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) to gas oil (Al2O3+DF) enhances the physical properties of fuel. Also, the adding of (Al2O3) reduce CO emissions by 20.5%, decrease NOx emission by 12.2%, increasing CO2 emissions by about 2.27% and decrease UHC emission about 13.5%. Furthermore, reduces the brake specific fuel consumption by 14.3%, decreasing the equivalence ratio by14.87% and improving the brake thermal efficiency by about 10.89%.

Processing and Properties of ZA-27 Alloy Metal Matrix Hybrid Composite Reinforced with Nanonitrides

Fadhil A. Hashim; Niveen J. Abdulkader; Kateralnada F. Hisham

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 57-64
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i1A.1597

In general, internal vibrations within the pipelines caused by fluids being passing through a pipeline system can cause. These pipeline system can damage by the sudden amplified vibrations that were not considered at the design of the system, and flow induced vibrations resonate with the pipes natural frequency. Therefore, it is important to predict and identify the pipeline system vibrations during its lifetime. In this study by using MATLAB code as a CFD solver, it studied the forced and free vibrations caused by fluid flows at Reynolds number ranged as 0 < Re < 2500 for laminar flow and ranged as 104 < Re < 105 for turbulent flow. The working fluid has chosen as of (Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2 and water) with different nanoparticle volume fraction of (0 to 2% vol.). These fluids flow in simply supported pipe with different lengths and diameters. The results presented the effect of pipe and fluid parameter upon the fluid critical velocity and fundamental natural frequencies. The results showed that the pipe natural frequency increased with increasing with decreasing the pipe length and diameter. In addition, it showed that the pipe natural frequency decreased when using the different nanoparticle depressed in the water and with increasing the volume fraction.

Binary and Ternary Nanoceramic Coatings to Protect Carbon Steel in Artificial Seawater

Rana Afif Anaee; Ahmed M. Al- Ghaban; Douaa A. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 15, Pages 2854-2863
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.15A.7

Binary and Ternary nanoparticles coatings have been applied on carbon steel using atomization method (cold spraying) to corrosion control in seawater. Nanoparticles were included Nano Al2O3, SiC and ZrO2. The characterization of coated surfaces has been investigated by AFM and SEM in addition to calculate the coating thickness. The binary coatings deal with 50%Al2O3-50%SiC, 50%Al2O3-ZrO2 and 50%SiC-50%ZrO2, while the ternary coating was 60%Al2O3-20%SiC-20%ZrO2.
The results showed that 50%Al2O3-50%SiC had the lowest thickness and most uniform distribution in AFM and SEM due to closing in particle sizes. Corrosion test achieved to estimate the corrosion resistance, protection efficiency and porosity percentage which indicated the role of Nano particle coating to corrosion control. These data showed that the Nano 50%Al2O3-50%SiC coating had the most noble corrosion potential, lowest corrosion current density (lowest corrosion rate), highest corrosion resistance, highest efficiency 99.651 % and lowest porosity percent 1.438×10-11. Cyclic polarization also estimated to show the probability for pitting corrosion. The coating with 50%Al2O3-50%SiC gave the highest breakdown potential equal to +69mV.

Estimation the Efficiency of Nano Particles Coating on Carbon Steel by Atomization

Rana Afif Anaee; Ahmed M. Al- Ghaban; Douaa A. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 5 A, Pages 876-886
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.5A.6

In this work, three nanoparticles were applied as coatings on carbon steel using atomization method (cold spraying) by airbrush.The coatings includednano Al2O3,nanoSiC and nanoZrO2 materials. The characterization of coated surfaces has been investigated by AFM and SEM. All these inspections indicated that the deposition of nanoparticles on carbon steel surface was uniform and homogeneous. Thethickness of coated layers was calculated using gravimetric method, while the particle size and roughness were measured from the analysis of atomic force microscopy.With constant conditions of coating, nano alumina coating gave the highest thickness (6.2216 nm) due to agglomeration of these particles compared with others as illustrated in SEM images. Corrosion test was performed to estimate the corrosion resistance, protection efficiency and porosity percentage which indicated the role of nano particle coating on corrosion control. These data showed that the nano alumina was better than other coatings and gave PE 99.69%.
Cyclic polarization was also estimated to show the probability of pitting corrosion. The coating with alumina gave the best data for decreasing the chance of pitting corrosion.

Fabrication and Characterization study of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Based on Cu-Nanoparticles Optical Fiber Sensor

Shehab A. Kadhim; Abeer H. Khalid; Nahla A. Al-Jaber; Faiz M.Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 9, Pages 1731-1740

In the present work, we prepared copper nanoparticles suspend in aqueous environments by pulse laser ablation (PLA) of pure copper target in distilled water and then irradiated by (Nd+3:YAG) laser light (1064 nm). The peak position of Plasmon resonance absorbance of green colored nanoparticles was noticed at 630 nm . We have implemented the photodeposition technique to deposit Cu- nanoparticles on optical fiber end using laser light and a prepared Cu- nanoparticles suspend in aqueous environments. Using SHG:( Nd+3: YAG) (532 NM) pulse laser light and copper nanoparticles suspend in aqueous environments. Surface Plasmon resonance curves of an optical fiber-based sensor were investigated. Effect of laser pulse repetition rate, on structure, and nanoparticles size was studied by analysis of the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra and AFM analysis of copper nanoparticles .The optical sensor was assembled using a LD light source, a spectrometer and an optical fiber immersed in copper nanoparticles colloidal as a sensor to measure the refractive index of aqueous media. The response and the sensitivity of the optical fiber sensor was investigated .Good agreement was obtained with respect to the resonance peak location and the shape of the curves. Consequently, these results enabled us to predict the ideal functioning conditions of the sensor.

The effect of Punica granatum nanoparticles in phagocytic cells in patients with Multiple Myeloma

Majid Sakhi Jabir; Zainab Jihad Taqi; Imman Ismael Jabbar; Mohammed Shammel Ali; Shimma Abd-Alsattar; Mayssa Adil Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 9, Pages 1702-1711

Multiple myeloma is a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help you fight infections by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs. This study aimed to investigate effect of aqueous extract and silver nanoparticles from Punica granatum peel on the ability of phagocytic cells in patients with Multiple myeloma. Chemical components of Punica granatum were investigated. It was found that they contained most of chemical compounds such as Glycosides, Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Saponins, Tanins, Resins, Terpenes, and Steroids. Our results showed the presence of a significant decrease (p˂0.001) in ability of phagocytic cells in patients, when the results were compared to the control group which included healthy individuals. While, the results showed increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells after added Punica granatum peel silver nanoparticles by increases activity of NADPH enzyme. This increase indicates that the Punica granatum peel silver nanoparticles contain chemical components which act as immune modulators by increase of the percentage of phagocytic cells to engulf bacteria.

Inhibition Effect of Noble Metals Nanoparticles on Acid Phosphate Activity in Sera of Healthy Subject

Eaman A.S.AL-Rubaee; Abdulrahman K Ali; Amenah Ali Salman; Zainab A.Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

Noble metals nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in water. The structural and optical properties of the Ag and Au nanoparticles investigated using (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer and TEM. The produced nanoparticles show small and sharp plasmon peaks around 400nm and 500 nm for silver and gold respectively. The nanoparticles have spherical shape with average size of about 30 nm. The effect of gold and silver NPs was studied on the activity of acid phosphatase (ACP) in blood sera of healthy subjects. The result correlated with the observation that gold and silver nanoparticles had inhibition effect on serum acid phosphatase activity, and this effect increased with increasing the concentration of the nanoparticles.

Synthesis of Colloidal Copper Oxide Nan Oparticles Using Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Ablation in Liquid

Abdul Qader D. Faisal; Raid A. Ismail; Zainab N. Jameel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 14-23

This work reports the attempts to carry out pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) for synthesizing colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles (NPs). Copper oxide NPs was synthesized by 7ns Nd:YAG laser ablation of high purity copper target immersed in different solutions; ethanol, acetone, and water. The optical and morphological properties of copper oxide NPs were investigated. It was found that the optical absorbance, energy gap, size, and distribution of copper oxide nanoparticles are dependent on liquid type. Plasmon peak was observed at 550nm for Cu NPs ablated in acetone and methanol liquids, while it was disappeared for those ablated in water. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the average grain size of copper oxide particles ablated in acetone, ethanol, and water were 276 nm, 300, and 360nm, respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to study the vibrational frequencies between the bonds of atoms for a synthesized copper oxide NPs at different liquids. All these results confirm the complete oxidation of ablated copper.

Preparation of Silver Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid Medium

Abdulrahman Khalaf Ali; Dayah N. Raouf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3058-3066
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.15.2

Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (Q-switched Nd:YAG, ë=1064nm, 10 ns pulse duration and E=100-900 mJ) of pure Ag metal plate immersed in double distilled and deionised water DDDW. Spectral measurements, such as surface plasmon extinction SPE spectra of the produced nanoparticles solution were measured. The size and concentrations measurements of produced nanoparticles were estimated. UV-VIS absorption spectra of produced solution show a sharp peak around 400 nm, indicating the produced Ag nanoparticles with a narrow size ranging from 5 to 50 nm with almost spherical shape.