Keywords : Tsp
Proposal to Enhance Network Routing by Using Ant Colony Optimization
Engineering and Technology Journal,
2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 740-754
This research introduces a proposal to enhance routing in internetworking depending on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The proposal concentrate on truth said: ACO itself is a metaheuristic, so when combined with an actual problem area, it can lead to several heuristics. From that, the two ACO algorithms Ant Colony System (ACS) and MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS)have been successfully applied to NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems, like TSP (Travel Salesman Problem), are extended to be used for solving routing problems. This research presented AntNet, based on mobile agents, whose use is currently oriented towards packet switching wirednetworks, such as Internet, which inspired from ACO, implemented then obtained results are analyzed and critical parameters are determined and so several modifications of AntNet were proposed, in what was called AntNet3.
AntNet3 improve an existing network routing technique in terms of speed of convergence when considering delay as the most important parameter for network convergence. In general the proposed modification demonstrates a method by which delay and network overhead can be significantly reduced without a higher loss rate or jitter. Experiments also indicate that the performance of the modified AntNet, AntNet3, is significantly improved when paths are long or alternative paths are few. Furthermore, under normal state of network operation, i.e. when all nodes are actively engaged in sending/receiving information, the modified AntNet significantly reduces the overall end-to-end delay.With AntNet3 route optimization will not get stranded into local optima and always new and better paths are explored even if the network topologies get changed very frequently (i.e network interfaces attached to terminals or attached to different network may become up and down very frequently physically and consequently may change the topology of the network). Hence problem of stagnation is solved. Finally, the Proposal was implemented in Visual Basic (VB8) programming language.
Serum Total Sialic Acid and Enzymes Levels in Patients with Asthma, Abdominal Bacterial Infectionsand Bone Disorders
Engineering and Technology Journal,
2013, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 93-106
This study was designed to evaluate the clinical application of serum total sialic acid (TSA), total serum protein (TSP) and enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in serum of 70 subjects. The study involved four groups, the first group (G1) consisted of 17 normal healthy individuals , group 2 (G 2) consisted of 20 patients with asthma, group 3 of 15 patients with abdominal bacterial infection , group 4 involved 18 patients with bone disorders. They were obtained from clinical routine work of different hospitals of Baghdad, Al-Wasity hospital and laboratory center for allergy of asthma. The levels of TSA, TSP and the activity of ALP and GGT were significantly increased in sera of patients with asthma and abdominal bacterial infection (P< 0.001) as compared with healthy control group. There was a significant changes observed in TSA, TSP, ALP and GGT in patients with bone diseases. A significant positive correlation between TSA and ALP was observed in patients with asthma and a negative correlation with some cases of bone diseases. A positive correlation between TSA and GGT in patients with asthma and abdominal infection and some cases of bone disease. In conclusion serum sialic acid levels might prove to be sensitive but not necessary specific marker of diagnosis of asthma, abdominal infection and some cases of bone disease.