Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Pollution


Simulation of Contaminants Transport and Groundwater Flow for Basrah Landfill Site

A.A. Al-Suraifi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 560-570
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.6A.2

groundwater aquifers is mostly effected from landfills due to intrusion of leachate from its base b. Active surface of landfills represents main source for leachate generation during rains or may be due to direct contact with groundwater, leading to the transport 5 pollutants from landfill which is intrudes to the aquifer under the landfill. In this research a 3-dimensional simulation models was constructed and calibrated to characterize groundwater flow and leachate pollution transport from Basrah province main landfill site. The selected study area is Al-Rafdhia landfill site, which is lie at Al-Zubair district (southern part of Iraq at Basrah). The model used in the simulation was Visual MODFLOW finite difference approach. All the required landfill and aquifer parameters, stressing and recharge estimates from field and laboratories works, Basrah climate data, observations, soil investigation reports and previous studies for the same region and then used in the model or adjusted by calibration. Six-month observation period was achieved to estimate the monthly state variables data such as heads and physical-chemical leachate and groundwater characteristics by measurement and sampling from the groundwater selected wells. Many soils and water samples were collected to know the aquifer characteristics and analyze the pollutants concentration values.
Accordingly, the calibrated model was used to simulate the flow and pollution transport at current year and then used for prediction of future changes in water levels and landfill contaminant transport in the aquifer for planning period of 15 future years. The final simulation and predication results show that the landfill represent main source of contamination and the pollution would occur in the aquifer at high levels and with approximate lateral transporting of 285 m/year if the current state of solid waste disposal continue with increase of pumping from the aquifer from its current rate with future. The groundwater flow and concentration profiles for pollutants with time and spaces from the pollution sources was predicated and a 3-D representation were done for pollutants spreading for specific pollutants.

Compared the Efficiency of Two Methods (Chemical and Biological) for Removal (Cadmium, Copper and Zinc) from Contaminated Water

Muntaha N. Althweni; Jenan H. Mohammed; Mayami H. Awad; Teba S. Ganee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 100-107
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112942

In the present study two methods were used to compare the efficiency of removing heavy metals (cadmium, copper and zinc) from contaminated water, and by applying the method of adding a chemical polymer dynamically (Alginic acid) and the method of adding a biological pure culture type of (green algae), different concentrations, respectively (1.0, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 ppm) was prepared for each element. Both of these methods have been applied and the same working conditions of temperature and pH of the time (72 hours), and then detect the level of residual concentrations of the elements mentioned using Flame atomic spectroscopy technique for measuring the absorbance. The results showed that the two methods effective in drag tested with the superiority of biopolymer algae free in reducing cadmium and copper. While convergence efficient ways to remove the zinc from aqueous media contaminated.

The Effect of Products Cooling on the Pollutants Emission from a Continuous Combustion Chamber

Abdul AL-Kadhim M.Hasan; Abdul Sattar Jawad; Murtadha Shubber Amran

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 12-21
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.1A.2

This paper presents the effect of products cooling on the pollutants emission of (carbon monoxide [CO], unburned hydrocarbon [UHC], nitrogen oxide [NOX], and Soot) from a continuous combustion chamber. Products cooling technique was accomplished by installing heat exchanger in the way of the exhaust gases. The water flow rate through heat exchanger was varied from 0 to 30 liters per minute with 10 liters per minute increment. With a droplet size of 80 µm for gas oil fuel and kerosene fuel, and local equivalence ratio was varied from 0.8 to 1.4. When using the products cooling technique it was found that the NOX is inversely proportional with increasing the water flow rate through heat exchanger with the maximum decrease in NOX emissions of 18.76%. But , CO , UHC and soot are directly proportional to increasing the water flow rate through heat exchanger as the maximum increase in CO , UHC and soot were (27.43%,26.32%,19.87%) respectively .also found the emissions from gas oil fuel more than kerosene fuel .

The Effect of Operating Factors on the Pollutants Emission from a Constant Pressure Burner

Abdul Al-Kadhim M. Hasan; Abdul Sattar Jawad M.Hasan; Riyadh Salman Radhi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 16, Pages 3109-3124
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.16A.9

This paper presents the effect of varying operating conditions on pollutants
emission (carbon monoxide [CO], unburned hydrocarbon [UHC], and Soot) from
constant pressure burner. In this research a liquid fuel used are gas oil and
kerosene .The operating conditions which taken in account are atomization
pressure, inlet air temperature, equivalence ratio, as well as type of fuel.
It is found that the Carbon monoxide and Unburned hydrocarbon are inversely
proportional to inlet air temperature with maximum decrease of (95%, 43%)
respectively. In contrast, soot is directly proportional to inlet air temperature as the
maximum increase in soot emission is 170%. Carbon monoxide , Unburned
hydrocarbon , and Soot are inversely proportional to Atomization pressure as the
maximum decrease in Carbon monoxide , Unburned hydrocarbon, and soot
emissions are (56.5%, 37.4%, 76%) respectively. The relation between Carbon
monoxide, Unburned hydrocarbon, and soot with equivalence ratio is directly
proportional as maximum increase in Carbon monoxide, and Unburned
hydrocarbon emissions are (130%, 81 %,) respectively, while soot emissions is 190
%. Emissions from a constant pressure burner depend on the physical and chemical
properties of fuel used, such as (viscosity, surface tension, volatility, the ratio of
hydrogen atoms number to carbon atoms number (H/C), and lower heating value).
it is found that the maximum increase in Carbon monoxide, Unburned
hydrocarbon, soot emissions from gas oil are generally higher than those from
kerosene fuel by (72%,17.5%,38%) respectively`.

Production of Digital Map for the Sources of Pollution in Nassiriya Marshes by Using “GIS”

Ali Karem Shaesh; Abbas Jawad Kadhem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 8, Pages 121-136
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.8A15

Iraqi marshes are one of the most important biodiversity in the world. They had many problems: bad environmental conditions, as well as decreasing of the amount of water that reaches marshes after restoration, in addition to the increase in the source of pollution around the marshes as a result of villages, hospitals, factories ….etc. All these reasons cause dispersion of pollutants in the marshes. This research study the source of pollution such as ( industrial, agricultural, medical, political and waste water) in Nassiriya marshes and project them on the digital maps to generate a final map represents all the sources of pollutants in this region. The research shows the environmental and medical effects of this pollutants and comprising them with the Iraqi environmental legislations.

Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Exhaust and Noise Emissions from 4-Stroke S.I.Engine

Maher A.R. Sadiq; Yassar K. Ali; Aimen Rashad Noor

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1438-1450
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.16

Considering pollution problems and energy crisis today, investigations
have been concentrated on lowering the concentration of toxic components in
combustion products and decreasing fuel consumption by using renewable
alternative fuels. In the present work, the effect of ethanol addition to gasoline on
the exhaust emissions and noise level has been experimentally investigated at
various engine loads.
Results of the engine test indicated that using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels
increases the power output of the engine dramatically (up to 50 %). While the CO
and HC emissions decrease as a result of the leaning effect caused by the ethanol
addition; and the CO2 emission increases because of the improvement of
combustion. Also, it was noted that the noise level emission increases slightly with
the increase of ethanol content. Finally, the results showed that ethanol can be used
as a supplementary fuel to gasoline in modern spark ignition engines without major
changes, and it can help to save our environment from toxic pollutants and to save
a considerable part of the available oil.