Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Remote Sensing

Accuracy Assessment of Digital Elevation Models Produced From Different Geomatics Data

Imzahim Abdulkareem; Zina Walid Samuel; Qassim K. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 11, Pages 1580-1592
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i11A.1318

Digital Elevation Models (DEM) are now being used in several geospatial applications. DEMs play an important role in the preliminary surveys for constructing dams and reservoirs, highways, canals, and projects in which earth work is essential. In many remote sensing applications, DEMs have become a significant tool for InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) processing, ground cover classification and images ortho-rectification. In this study, the accuracy of DEMs obtained from ALOS V1.1, ASTER V2, SRTM V3 and other obtained from a pair of Pleiades high-resolution (PHR) 1B satellites in a study area were evaluated after comparing them with high accuracy GNSS/RTK checkpoints. The SRTM3, ALOS V1.1, ASTER V2 DEM revealed a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.234m, 0.838m, and 15.116m respectively; while the DEM which is produced from a 0.5m resolution of Pleiades 0.5m shows an RMSE of 0.642m. The correct bias Linear transformation algorithm was used and the RMSE results were: SRTM V3 (1.319m), ALOS V1.1 (0.830m), ASTER V2 (3.815m), and PHR (0.433m). The results showed that the ALOS V1.1 model is the most accurate of the open source models followed by the SRTM V3 model and then followed by ASTER V2. The results obtained from a pair by Pleiades high-resolution (PHR) 1B satellites show a higher accuracy than the results obtained from the open source models.

Zoning Areas Susceptible to Land Subsidence in Tigris and Euphrates Basins

Ali Darvishi Boloorani; Masoud Soleimani; Ramin Papi; Seyed Kazem Alavipanah; Ayad M. Fadhil Al-Quraishi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 265-272
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.7

Land Subsidence is considered as one of the riskiest hazards in nature and geology. It may be caused by human activities including but not limited to long-term depletion of water, petroleum, and gas from underground reservoirs. Monitoring and zoning of regions susceptible to land-subsidence within Tigris and Euphrates rivers basin can play a major role in predicting and preventing damages from subsidence and can aid in better planning for utilizing its water resources. Accordingly, this study proposed to employ 9 effective parameters on subsidence including: precipitation, total water underground changes, elevation, slope, population, land use, distance from petroleum and gas fields, distance from faults, and distance from rivers. Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory method was applied for analyzing relationships between parameters. Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process and Boolean methods were combined to produce zoning maps of Tigris and Euphrates basin subsidence. The results were indicative of the high potential of subsidence in zones contributing to 1.39% of the total area of the Tigris and Euphrates basin. Inter-parameter analysis by using of Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory indicated that land cover, total water underground changes, and population were the most impressible factors in land subsidence zoning, respectively.

Selecting the Potential Water Harvesting Sites Using Fuzzy GIS-Based Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation in Salah Al-Din Governorate, Iraq

Imzahim Abdulkareem; Hussein H. Karim; Nadia A. Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 219-226
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.4

Remote sensing and GIS-based techniques were used to select the potential sites for water harvesting in Salah Al-Din Governorate, northern Baghdad/ Iraq. Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) was used where seven criteria layers have been evaluated to identify water-harvesting sites, such as slope, stream order, precipitation, potential evaporation rate, soil type, distance to roads and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This method helps in locating water-harvesting sites in suitable places as well as improves the management of water resources in the study area. Fuzzy logic modeling was used to standardize the criteria layers, and the Fuzzy Gamma overlay was used to combine these layers together in ArcGIS 10.5. Specific criteria were used to unify all these layers. Finally, the final suitability map for the potential water harvesting sites in Salah Al-Din area was produced were twelve potential waterharvesting sites within the study area have been identified according to the specific criteria used for this purpose and have a high potential for water harvesting. This map will provide optimum sites to build dams in order to store the water, especially in drought-stricken areas. The results illustrate that the GIS can be used as a decision-making tool in water resources management in a scientific approach, which makes the decision making easier and accurate.

Utilization of Remote Sensing Data and GIS Applications for Determination of the Land Cover Change in Karbala Governorate

Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon; Imzahim Abdulkareem Alwan; Alaa Ghadhban Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 15, Pages 2773-2787

This study was conducted to determine the land cover changes between year 1976
and year 2011 in Karbala Governorate by using an integrated approach of remote
sensing data and GIS applications for investigation of the spatial and temporal
changes. A part of Karbala Governorate, whose Area is 768 km2 was selected as study
Four cloud free Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and SPOT scenes covering the study
area were selected for analysis. Images were acquired in years 1976, 1990, 2001, and
2011 respectively. All images which mentioned above are rectified and registered in
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection zone 38 N and supervised image
classification system has been observed to classify the images in different land cover
categories. Six land cover classes have been identified and used to determine the
change in land cover in study area and these classes are: Agricultural land, Water
bodies, Urban Area, Sand dunes, Bare soil, and Waterlogged Area. According to the
results obtained from statistics of classification, it was observed that most changes
occurred in heterogeneous agricultural areas. It is thought that the main reasons of this
change are increasing population pressure, increasing sand dunes, appearance and
increasing waterlogged area and changing economic activities. Those reasons have
been led to the decrease of the agricultural areas in study area during period from year
2001 to 2011.

The Determination Of Desertification Phenomena Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 11, Pages 1405-1410

In this present work, the digital image analysis is used as a
developed remote sensing technique to study the effects of desertification
phenomena in Karbala South west of Iraq. Two satellite images used in this
study with coverage area of 80 km2. The first was SPOT panchromatic
image, 10 m resolution taken in 1999. The second was Landsat (TM) visible
image, 30m resolution taken in 1987.
An area of 1 km2 was selected from each image to be the site of the
field experiment. The experiment period was six months from. Nine points
were selected within the selected area to be the measuring points. The
measurements were done every two months for both the vertical and
horizontal accumulated sand in the nine points. These field measurements
led to an average of 1.5 cm/day of sand creeping within the measuring