Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Remote sensing

Integrated Approach for Land Surface Temperature Assessment in Different Topography of Iraq

Zainab K. Jabal; Thair S. Khayyun; Imzahim A. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1465-1486
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134581.1241

Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a critical parameter for water resources and hydrology investigation. Weather ground stations provide a continuous dataset on the LST. However, some stations rely on discrete events data, which shows limited capabilities to monitor diurnal and annual changes in LST. Remote Sensing technology provided much valid information by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to cover LST variations in Iraq. This study aims to analyze LST variation based on MOD11C3 Data with weather ground measurements stations for the different topography periods between 2000-2020. Different statistical parameters were used to validate LST results, including RSME; NSE; R2, and Parson Correlation. The results indicate agreement between MODIS and ground measurement stations during the winter season. The values ranged: RSME (close to zero); NSE (0 to 1); R 2(between 0.5 and 1), and Parson Correlation (between 0.51 to 1).In spring, the values ranged: R 2(between 0.5 and 1) and Parson Correlation (between 0.51 to 1). As the temperature rises during seasonal changes, the congruence in the four statistical indicators begins to decline dramatically. However, Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul stations still appear in good agreement, which is the validity of the data issued by MOD11C3. The finding presented in this research shows that the results of the LST by MOD11C3 are in good agreement and acceptable despite in various topographies of the ground stations.

Managing the Excess Floodwaters in the Lake Hemrin Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

Hussain Muhamed; Mustafa N. Hamoodi; Abd Alrazzak T. Ziboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 779-791
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2021.131195.1017

Lake Hemrin is located in the middle east of Iraq, about 50 km from the Iraqi-Iranian border. The lake is the main fish source and provides water for nearby farms. However, due to various socio-economic and environmental management issues, the Hemrin system is a difficult water resources challenge. Moreover, Lake Hemrin receives floodwaters annually over its storage capacity; therefore, there is a risk of flooding in the areas downstream of the lake. To this end, this research developed optimization solutions to design flood escape paths in the area using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Among three initial proposals, i.e., Adhaim River, Wadi Naft, and Salahdin, the developed models optimized each of the proposals and suggested that Wadi Naft would require only 3.88 km3 of cut and fill volume compared to Adhaim River of 34.33 km3. However, the latter would serve more people and agricultural lands. GA and AHP techniques to optimize flood escape paths have shown that these models can discover shorter pathways requiring less cut and fill costs while retaining other flood escape features. The proposed optimal flood escape path can substantially influence the construction of flood-prevention strategies in the area.

Accuracy Assessment of Digital Elevation Models Produced From Different Geomatics Data

Imzahim Abdulkareem; Zina Walid Samuel; Qassim K. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 11, Pages 1580-1592
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i11A.1318

Digital Elevation Models (DEM) are now being used in several geospatial applications. DEMs play an important role in the preliminary surveys for constructing dams and reservoirs, highways, canals, and projects in which earth work is essential. In many remote sensing applications, DEMs have become a significant tool for InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) processing, ground cover classification and images ortho-rectification. In this study, the accuracy of DEMs obtained from ALOS V1.1, ASTER V2, SRTM V3 and other obtained from a pair of Pleiades high-resolution (PHR) 1B satellites in a study area were evaluated after comparing them with high accuracy GNSS/RTK checkpoints. The SRTM3, ALOS V1.1, ASTER V2 DEM revealed a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.234m, 0.838m, and 15.116m respectively; while the DEM which is produced from a 0.5m resolution of Pleiades 0.5m shows an RMSE of 0.642m. The correct bias Linear transformation algorithm was used and the RMSE results were: SRTM V3 (1.319m), ALOS V1.1 (0.830m), ASTER V2 (3.815m), and PHR (0.433m). The results showed that the ALOS V1.1 model is the most accurate of the open source models followed by the SRTM V3 model and then followed by ASTER V2. The results obtained from a pair by Pleiades high-resolution (PHR) 1B satellites show a higher accuracy than the results obtained from the open source models.

Zoning Areas Susceptible to Land Subsidence in Tigris and Euphrates Basins

Ali Darvishi Boloorani; Masoud Soleimani; Ramin Papi; Seyed Kazem Alavipanah; Ayad M. Fadhil Al-Quraishi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 265-272
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.7

Land Subsidence is considered as one of the riskiest hazards in nature and geology. It may be caused by human activities including but not limited to long-term depletion of water, petroleum, and gas from underground reservoirs. Monitoring and zoning of regions susceptible to land-subsidence within Tigris and Euphrates rivers basin can play a major role in predicting and preventing damages from subsidence and can aid in better planning for utilizing its water resources. Accordingly, this study proposed to employ 9 effective parameters on subsidence including: precipitation, total water underground changes, elevation, slope, population, land use, distance from petroleum and gas fields, distance from faults, and distance from rivers. Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory method was applied for analyzing relationships between parameters. Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process and Boolean methods were combined to produce zoning maps of Tigris and Euphrates basin subsidence. The results were indicative of the high potential of subsidence in zones contributing to 1.39% of the total area of the Tigris and Euphrates basin. Inter-parameter analysis by using of Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory indicated that land cover, total water underground changes, and population were the most impressible factors in land subsidence zoning, respectively.

Selecting the Potential Water Harvesting Sites Using Fuzzy GIS-Based Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation in Salah Al-Din Governorate, Iraq

Imzahim Abdulkareem; Hussein H. Karim; Nadia A. Aziz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 219-226
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.4

Remote sensing and GIS-based techniques were used to select the potential sites for water harvesting in Salah Al-Din Governorate, northern Baghdad/ Iraq. Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) was used where seven criteria layers have been evaluated to identify water-harvesting sites, such as slope, stream order, precipitation, potential evaporation rate, soil type, distance to roads and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This method helps in locating water-harvesting sites in suitable places as well as improves the management of water resources in the study area. Fuzzy logic modeling was used to standardize the criteria layers, and the Fuzzy Gamma overlay was used to combine these layers together in ArcGIS 10.5. Specific criteria were used to unify all these layers. Finally, the final suitability map for the potential water harvesting sites in Salah Al-Din area was produced were twelve potential waterharvesting sites within the study area have been identified according to the specific criteria used for this purpose and have a high potential for water harvesting. This map will provide optimum sites to build dams in order to store the water, especially in drought-stricken areas. The results illustrate that the GIS can be used as a decision-making tool in water resources management in a scientific approach, which makes the decision making easier and accurate.

Evaluation of the Operational Speed for Iraqi Railways Using Geomatics Techniques

Maysoon Mohamed Hamed; Ammar A.M. Shubber; Abudl Al Razzak T.Zboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2249-2257
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.12A.8

Theresearch evaluation is the current operational speeds of Iraqi railway lines within Geomatics techniques . It aims improving operational speeds where fined the level of speeds in Iraq has reached in some places to (5 km/h) for the north line. Also determining the factors affecting the speed and causing the decline of the railway, such as soil, the old design of line, the large number of irregular crossings, bad maintenance of fences, means of communication is very bad and almost without safty fences , a single line, except some lines and some climate element which reflected negatively on the performance of the railway, the large number of accidents with operational speed of passenger trains ranged between (20-90) km/h at a time (10) hours for the south line, and (20-80) km/h for north line. it is improved by reducing the time on the orders of caution, time to enter and exit from the station, stop at the stations time, increasing operational speed up to (80-90) km/ h, these improvements one possibly achieved by raising the irregular crossings or convert regular crossings to overpass , treatment of soil, good maintenance (for the rail lines, the protective fence), and the use of modern communication and signals system. A proposal to reduce the trip time from Baghdad to Basrah to (5.13) hour at a percentage 23% to (98-110.7) km/h(because it’s the only working line) as in the case at India where a study for upgrading track standards of conventional track with diesel and electric traction which is close to the specifications of the reality case of the Iraqi railway nets .

Evaluation of Total Demand For Al-Hussainiyah Irrigation Project Using Geomatics Techniques

Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon; Mahmoud S. Mahdi; Hanan Kadhum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 9, Pages 1715-1730
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.9A.1

In this paper, the crop water requirement was calculated using two methods; the first method is FAO-56-Penman Monteith. While the second method, is the Penman Monteithutilizingsatellite image data where the Landsat 5 TM image is used in this method. The estimated ETCusing these two methods wasof equal value,5.20 mm/sec.This verifies the use of this satellite image for estimation of ETC. The agricultural situation and water demand of each canal and the corresponding cultivated area were evaluated.This evaluation shows that
Al-HussainiyahCanal has the highest value of discharge (12.43 m3/sec) with maximum cultivated area (89.82 km2). The Al-ajmea Canal has the lowest discharge rate of (0.25 m3/sec), with minimum cultivated area of (0.39 km2).These canals operate under half of their design discharge and the cultivated area for this project distributed mainly along the main canals. Evaluation of the water use efficiency (WUE)of the project shows that the maximum value of the estimated WUE was at Al-kamalea canal 7.9 km2/m3/sec. While the minimum value was at Al-ajmea canal 1.6 km2/m3/sec. The average WUE for the area of study was 7.2 km2/m3/sec, which is equal to the WUE ofAl-HuassainiyahCanal.It has been proven that the Landsat 5 TM image can be effectively used in monitoring irrigation network, especially when considering large areas. It can be used for estimating and evaluating the water consumption and the water use efficiency of the irrigation projects in Iraq.

Estimation of Land Surface Temperature for Different Regions in Iraq Using Remote Sensing Technique (ETM+); Yaseen K. Al-Timimi yassen-atimimi; Ali M. Al-Salihi; Alaa M. Al-lami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1084-1091
DOI: 10.30684/etj.32.6B.7

Temperatures are important factors that have an impact directly and indirectly on human, so the attention to this aspect certainly will be in the interest of human life.
In this research, the land surface temperature was estimated for different regions in Iraq, using the thermal Band of ETM+ sensor mounted in the Landsat 7 satellite. By using ERDAS 8.4 software, the thermal images are converted to thematic maps which represent land surface temperatures. The results showed that the estimated land surface temperatures are 29.7°C, 31.8°C, 17°C, 17.8°C, 17°C, 20.6°C and 30.2°C for Al-Mousl , Taleafer, Al-Ramadi, Heet, Kerbela, Al-Hai and Al-Basrah stations respectively. Also the results show that there is high correlation between the estimated and the observed data with a difference of 1-2°C.

Utilization of Remote Sensing Data and GIS Applications for Determination of the Land Cover Change in Karbala Governorate

Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon; Imzahim Abdulkareem Alwan; Alaa Ghadhban Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 15, Pages 2773-2787

This study was conducted to determine the land cover changes between year 1976
and year 2011 in Karbala Governorate by using an integrated approach of remote
sensing data and GIS applications for investigation of the spatial and temporal
changes. A part of Karbala Governorate, whose Area is 768 km2 was selected as study
Four cloud free Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and SPOT scenes covering the study
area were selected for analysis. Images were acquired in years 1976, 1990, 2001, and
2011 respectively. All images which mentioned above are rectified and registered in
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection zone 38 N and supervised image
classification system has been observed to classify the images in different land cover
categories. Six land cover classes have been identified and used to determine the
change in land cover in study area and these classes are: Agricultural land, Water
bodies, Urban Area, Sand dunes, Bare soil, and Waterlogged Area. According to the
results obtained from statistics of classification, it was observed that most changes
occurred in heterogeneous agricultural areas. It is thought that the main reasons of this
change are increasing population pressure, increasing sand dunes, appearance and
increasing waterlogged area and changing economic activities. Those reasons have
been led to the decrease of the agricultural areas in study area during period from year
2001 to 2011.

The Determination Of Desertification Phenomena Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 11, Pages 1405-1410

In this present work, the digital image analysis is used as a
developed remote sensing technique to study the effects of desertification
phenomena in Karbala South west of Iraq. Two satellite images used in this
study with coverage area of 80 km2. The first was SPOT panchromatic
image, 10 m resolution taken in 1999. The second was Landsat (TM) visible
image, 30m resolution taken in 1987.
An area of 1 km2 was selected from each image to be the site of the
field experiment. The experiment period was six months from. Nine points
were selected within the selected area to be the measuring points. The
measurements were done every two months for both the vertical and
horizontal accumulated sand in the nine points. These field measurements
led to an average of 1.5 cm/day of sand creeping within the measuring