Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : PLD

Studying the Effect of Annealing Temperature on some Physical Properties of In2O3 Thin Films

Duaa A. Mohammed; Muslim F. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2B, Pages 124-127
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2B.5

In this study, In2O3 thin films were deposited on quartz substrates by
pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature and followed by
thermally annealing at 300℃, 400℃ and 500℃ for 1 hour. The optical band
gap was found to increase with the annealing temperature from 3.5 to 3.85 eV
and the transmittance was observed above 90%. XRD results show that the films
are polycrystalline in nature and crystallizes with preferred orientation (222).
SEM images show that the films are

Investigation Nano coating for Corrosion Protection of Petroleum Pipeline Steel Type A106 Grade B; Theoretical and Practical Study in Iraqi Petroleum Sector

M. J. Kadhim; K. A. Sukkar; A. S. Abbas; N. H. Obaeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 10, Pages 1042-1051
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.10A.11

In the present investigation, titania (TiO2) nano-thin films were deposited on steel type A106-B, by using the Pulse Laser Deposition (PLD) technique to obtain passive layers of nano-coating. Electrochemical methods (Tafel completion) are used for study corrosion behavior of steel coating. The A106-B specimens were evaluated in 3.5 wt. % NaCl aqueous solution by using polarization technique with pH adjustment to 4.0 in order to determine the corrosion rate. The samples of TiO2 thin films were characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, and FTIR. The input parameters were substrate temperature (100, 200 and 300) ’0C’, number of pulse (300, 400 and 500) and fluencies energy (800, 900 and 1000) mJ/cm2, have been investigated to detect their impact on corrosion reduction rate using Taguchi methodology orthogonal array and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).The ANOVA results indicates that number of shoots pulse significantly affecting the corrosion rate in PLD technique, which is highest among the contributions of the other parameters which is (58.03%) about three times of the fluencies energy (19.12%).The results show that the TiO2 deposition on steels offers an excellent corrosion resistance about 99 times as compared with uncoated steel. The optimum conditions to minimum values corrosion rate are: temperature of 300ºC, number of laser pulses at 300, and fluencies energy equal to 1000 mJ/cm2. Finally the optimal parameters that was used to predict the conclusions were (98.6) to the response of corrosion rate.

Manufacturing of Bi-functional Nano-sensor of Nobel Metal for Hydrocarbon Gas Detection in Petroleum Sector Using Pulse Laser Deposition Technique

K.A. Sukkar; S.M. Kadhim; A.S. Falih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 864-871
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.13

In the present investigation bi-functional nano-gas-sensor was manufactured from two types of metals: ZnO metal oxide and Pt noble metal. The nano-gas-sensors were designed for monitoring and control the environmental pollution in petroleum sector. The preparation technique was carried out by design and construction of a pulse laser deposition unit (PLD) with Nd: YAG laser (λ=532nm, laser fluence 2 J/cm2, repetition rate 6 Hz and the pulse duration 7ns). The target was pure ZnO and Pt:ZnO that containing 4%wt Pt. The hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) was used as Pt source. The PLD films were deposited at three different temperatures 200, 250, and 300oC. Many characterization tests are used to study the influence of temperature on surface morphology of prepared films: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), x-ray Diffraction (XRD) and (UV) visible. The results pointed to a direct relationship between the deposition temperature and the grain sizes of the nanoparticles formed on the substrate. On the other hand, the results of RMS roughness of AFM showed an increased value with increasing of deposition temperature. The best value of RMS roughness was 10.3nm for thin films deposited at 250ºC. The x-ray results shows formation of nanostructure on the substrate at deposition temperature of 250ºC, in which represent high surface area of gas sensor and especially with Pt. In addition, the UV-VIS transmittance measurements have shown that the films are highly transparent in the Visb-NIR wavelength region, with an average transmittance of about 90%. These results pointed to that the manufactured bi-metals nano-gas-sensor (Pt:ZnO) at 250oC is more suitable for LPG hydrocarbons detection application in petroleum positions.

Effect of Substrate Temperature on Optical and Structural Properties of Indium Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Reactive PLD Method

Makram A. Fakhri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1323-1330
DOI: 10.30684/etj.32.5A.19

In the present Work, effect of substrate temperatures on the optical and morphological properties of In2O3 trioxide thin film has been carried out using Reactive Pulsed Laser as a Deposition technique (RPLD). 1.064µm, 7 nsec Q-switch Nd-YAG laser with 400 mJ/cm2 laser energy’s has been used to ablated pure Indium target and deposited on glass substrates . The resulted films show High transparency reached to about (85) % which found to decrease sharply with the substrate temperatures. The estimated optical band gap found to be about 3.6eV at optimum substrate temperatures (70 Co). The FTIR results insure the formation ofIn-O vibrational bond with different vibrational intensity depending on substrate temperatures.

Effect of Some Vegetables (Carrots, Onion, Parsley, and Red radish) on Corrosion Behavior of Amalgam Dental Filling in Artificial Saliva

Slafa Ismael Ibrahim; Nemir Ahmed Al-Azzawi; Shatha Mizhir Hasan; Hussein H. Karim; Ammar M. M. Al-Qaissi; Ahmed Chyad Kadhim; Mehdi Munshid Shellal; Sinan Majid Abdul Satar; Wahid S. Mohammad; Assad Oda Jassim; Khalid salem Shibib; Karema Assi Hamad; Haqui Ismael Qatta; Hayder Hadi Abbas; Kanaan A. Jalal; Hussain Kassim Ahmad; Makram A. Fakhri; Mohanned M.H. AL-Khafaji; Hussam Lefta Alwan; Baraa M.H. Albaghdadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 1216-1226
DOI: 10.30684/etj.32.5A.11

This work involves study corrosion behavior of amalgam in presence of some vegetables including (Carrots, Onion, Parsley, and Red radish) which were chosen because they require mastication process by teeth and taking enough time that make them in a contact with amalgams filling in artificial saliva.
The corrosion parameters were interpreted in artificial saliva at pH (5.1) and (37±1oC) by adding (50 ml/l) of vegetable juice to artificial saliva, which involve corrosion potential (Ecorr), corrosion current density (icorr), Cathodic and anodic Tafel slopes (bc & ba ) and polarization resistance, the results of (Ecorr) and (icorr) indicate that the medium of saliva and (50 ml/l) onion is more corrosive than the other media. Cathodic and anodic tafel slopes were used to calculate the polarization resistance (Rp) to know which medium more effective on amalgam of dental filling, this study shows that the increasing in polarization resistance through the decreasing in corrosion rate values, the results of (Rp) take the sequence:
Rp:( saliva+ parsley) >( saliva+ red radish)> saliva>(saliva+ carrots) >(saliva+ onion).
While corrosion rates (CR ) take the sequence:
CR: (Saliva+Parsley) Keywords

Corrosion in saliva
Potentiostatic measurements

Study the Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing on Thin Films Prepared By Pulse Laser Deposition Method

Heba Salam Tareq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 444-452
DOI: 10.30684/etj.32.3B.7

In this paper, the synthesis of nanocrystalline Nickel oxide (NiO) thin films on quartz substrates using a pulsed 532 nm Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser is presented, the annealing temperature was varied from (200 - 400 ˚C). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the deposited films are crystalline in nature. Furthermore, a higher annealing temperature resulted in a thicker NiO film, which was attributed to an increased grain size. The morphology of deposited films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM);with increasing annealing temperature, the grain size increase .The grain size value (10,23 and 40 nm) for thin films annealing at 200 ,300 and 400˚C respectively., and with increasing annealing temperature, surface roughness decrease. RMS roughness values were (13.5, 7.8 and 5.5 nm) for thin films annealing at 200, 300 and 400˚C respectively. UV–Vis spectrophotometric measurement showed high transparency (nearly 92 % in the wavelength range 400–900 nm) of the NiO thin film with a direct allowed band gap value lying in the range 3.51–3.6 eV.

Influence of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Optical Properties of CdO Thin Films Prepared By Pulsed Laser Deposition

Muhanad Adel; Khaled Z.Yahya

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 416-425
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.3.7

Nanocrystallites of cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser
deposition technique on glass substrates using Nd:YAG laser at 532nm wave length.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the nanocrystalline cubic CdO phase
formation. The intensity of XRD peaks increases with the increase in substrate
temperature and better crystallinity takes place at higher temperature. The
morphology of deposited films were characterized by scanning electron microscope
(SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM); with increasing substrate temperature,
both the grain size and surface roughness increase .The grain size value (12,18,47
nm) and rms roughness values were 63.3, 98.8 and 138.4 nm for thin films deposited
at 100 , 200 and 300ºC respectively. UV–Vis spectrophotometric measurement
showed high transparency (nearly 88 % in the wavelength range 500–900 nm) of the
CdO thin film with a direct allowed band gap value lying in the range 2.81–3.7eV

Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Structural and Morphological Properties of Nano-structure ZnO films by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Adawiya J. Haider; Afnan k. yousif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 58-64

In this work, ZnO thin films were grown on sapphire (0001) substrate by
Pulsed Laser Deposition using SHG with Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser operation
at 532nm in O2 gas ambient 5×10-2 mbar at different substrate temperatures varying
from room temperature to 500°C. The influence of the substrate temperature on the
structural and morphological properties of the films were investigated using XRD and
SEM. As result, at substrate 400°C, a good quality and crystalline films were deposited
that exhibits an average grain size (XRD) of 22.42nm with an average grain size
(SEM) of 21.31nm.