Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : solvent extraction

Clathrate-Based Recovery of Sulfuric Acid from Spent Acid

Najlaa J. Lazim; Riyadh S. AlMukhtar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2023, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.136228.1308

Recently, the applications of hydrate phenomena in industrial processes have been increasing. A clathrate or hydrate is a solid, ice-like compound that forms when water/guest is mixed under certain conditions. Hydrogen water molecules bond with the guest molecules to form a crystal lattice. Different guests can form the Clathrate (e.g., gases or liquids). Dilute Sulfuric acid is usually generated at different industrial plants, and these dilute acids are considered waste because they cannot be reused again. Many treatment processes handle this environmental problem, like electrochemistry, precipitation, adsorption, membrane filtration, and ion exchange. Although such processes have significant operational advantages, their disadvantage is that many of the high costs of the treatment process and the generated products of treatment are considered toxic pollutants. This work utilized clathrate phenomena experiments to re-concentrate dilute sulfuric acid. The selected clathrate guest was Cyclopentane. Each experiment s consists of a mixture of Cyclopentane and dilute sulfuric acids. The volume ratios of dilute sulfuric acid to Cyclopentane were (6:1, 4: 1, 3:1, and 2:1) with different initial concentrations (12.5%, 10%, 7.5%, 5%, 2.5%) of acid. It was found that the clathrate method was effective in re-concentrate dilute sulfuric acids with a maximum efficiency of 94% at the ratio of acid /cyclopentane (6:1) at 12.5% concentration. It can be concluded that the increase in dilute sulfuric acid /cyclopentane volume ratio leads increasing in removal efficiency while reducing the yield percentage and enriched Factor.

Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Iraqi Phosphate Ore by Using of Tributyl Phosphate

Muna K. Abbass; Moayyed G. Jalhoom; Aya M. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 240-245
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i2A.313

Iraqi phosphate ore deposits have been ascertained to be the second global reserve after Morocco, it has been utilized successfully at Al-Qaim phosphate fertilizers complex in the period 1983-2009. The deposit has valuable content of rare piles of earth and uranium, which is expected to have a good impact on the Iraqi economy if they are recovered from the ore. In the present study, solvent extraction was employed for the extraction of the rare earth elements (REEs), tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene was utilized for extracting ytterbium, yttrium, erbium, and lanthanum from an aqueous solution made via the nitric acid (HNO3) leaching of the concentrate of the Iraqi apatite ore. In the extraction stage, the effect of the concentration of TBP (1, 2, 3, and 3.5) M, contact time (1, 3,5,7,9, and 11) min, and the phase ratio (organic/aqueous) (1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 1/1, 2/1, 3/1, 4/1) were studied. The outcomes manifested, that around 92.9%, 98%, 90.4%, and 98.3% of yttrium, ytterbium, erbium, and lanthanum, respectively were extracted at the best extraction conditions of 3M TBP , 4/1 organic to aqueous phase ratio and 7 min contact time.