Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : wastewater

Treatment of Iraqi Municipal Wastewater by up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor UASB

Khairi R. Kalash; Majid A. Dixon; Hussein IR. Sultan; Raad A. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 1A, Pages 130-136
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i1A.571

In this work, the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket “UASB” reactor treated effluent wastewater to investigate the process performance on a pilot plant scale. Municipal wastewater at high and medium strength with different organic load rate OLR (0.6-9) kg COD m-3day-1 with the flow of 20 l/h, up-flow velocity 0.4 m/h, hydraulic retention time HRT 9 h at a temperature of (20-30 ºC) was evaluated. The wastewater concentration, including TSS, COD was measured, and the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solid TSS were calculated and summarized as 45-85% and 70-75%, respectively, depending on organic load rate OLR. Effluent volatile fatty acids VFA was measured, and the results were in the range between 12-90 mg/L depending on OLR with a slight change in pH (8.3-8.4), which means the conversion of COD to methane and increase ammonia concentration.

Using Microbial Desalination Cell to Treat Iraqi Wastewater

Talib R. Abbas; Majid A. Dixon; Mustafa Hussein Al-Furaiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 7A, Pages 227-234
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.7A.2

A Three-chambers MDC was made using three identical cubical
plexi-glass sections. Each chamber has an effective volume of 35 cm3. An anion
exchange membrane (AEM) was used to separate the anode from the
desalination chambers while a cation exchange membrane (CEM) was used to
separate the cathode from the desalination chambers. Two graphite sheets were
used as anode and cathode electrodes. Biotic experiments have included aircathode MDC fed with synthetic municipal wastewater, Bio-cathode MDC in
which the cathode chamber was inoculated with microalgae as an oxygen
source and air-cathode MDC was fed with floated oil layer in the anode
chamber as an organic source. Maximum power density obtained from the
MDC was 121 mW/m2. The corresponding current density was 410 mA/m2.
Maximum power density obtained in this study was in consistency with that
presented in previous studies. Maximum coulombic efficiency and charge
efficiency achieved were 9% and 165% respectively. The results of this study
confirmed the validity of using MDC technology to treat municipal wastewater
as well as oil, desalinate brackish water and generate electric power
simultaneously. Moreover, the results revealed the possibility of using mixed
culture algae, available in the Iraqi environment, in the cathode chamber as an
oxygen source to develop more energy efficient MDC. Further study deals with
different system configurations and different operating conditions are needed.

Shortage Sanitation Services in the Outskirts of Baghdad and its Environmental Impacts

Alaa R.H. Al-Obaidi; Sara D.A. Zangana; Saja H.S. Al-Sudany

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.1

This study focuses on evaluation of the reality of wastewater services in the areas of outskirts of Baghdad which the responsibility of their implementation rests on the province of Baghdad and the ministry of construction and housing and general municipalities/ the General Directorate of Sewerage GDS, and to suggest the possibility to improve these services in light of the plans developed by the concerned authorities and the proportion of disability in the services suffered by those areas. The study concluded that the completion of the stopped project because of the financial crisis will raise the proportion of serves population to approximately 71.4%, and the construction of new projects will raise the proportion to approximately 100%.

Study the Dye Decolorization of Wastewater Using Bentonite, H2O2, Ultrasonic and Laser Techniques

A.Z. Mohammed; A. Sh. Hamadi; H.A.M. Redha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1A, Pages 41-45
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2018.136754

The bentonite is an adsorbent material that is used frequently in industrial fields. bentonite was used with laser to treat wastewater, when laser is a new technique that has ability to remove the dye. Using of laser as a source to refresh with high efficiency has the important in industrial field.In this study laser diode with power 50 mw, He-Ne laser with power 10 mw and DPSSL with power 500 mw were used with the help of ultrasonic bath and H2O2 to promote the work of the laser. AFM and FTIR testing were made to bentonite to study the characteristics of it. Minitab program was used to facilitate calculations and choose the optimum parameters of experiments. The optimum input conditions of experiments to remove the dye from wastewater were chosen. The best concentration of bentonite is 4 g/l, the best temperature of wastewater is 42◦C, the best time of work is 27 min and the best concentration of H2O2 is 10%. It found from study that the increase of each parameters cause decrease in output concentration of wastewater. The accuracy of work was determined from Minitab program, it was 94.54%.

Synthesis of Magnetic MWCNTs Nanohybrids and Application in Remediation of Chromium Ions in Refinery Wastewater


Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 838-841
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.8

This study presents the preparation of Magnetic - Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (M-MWCNTs) as adsorbents, MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite, in which multiwall carbon nanotubes were coated to magnetic Fe3O4 particles by simplistic sol-gel techniques. The synthesized MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nano-composites were measured via Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X -Ray Diffraction spectrometry (XRD), and Scanning -electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption behaviors of the MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nanocomposites will be evaluated intended for the elimination of chromium ions in diluted refinery wastewater.

Treatment of Wastewater from Oil Refinery by Adsorption on Fluidized Bed of Stem Date

M.G. Albarazanjy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2A, Pages 134-138
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2017.127324

A fluidized–bed adsorbed system was used to study the removal efficiency of oil and the total dissolved solids (TDS) from on oily wastewater. Adsorption was developed using stem date. The range of oil concentration used was (100-500ppm), and the range of [TDS] was (600  1500 ppm). The effects of flow rate at (18  28 L/min), particle size of stem date (3-5 mm) and bed height (25-40 cm) on the adsorption efficiency of removal were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency reaches high percent about (71%) with decreasing particle size, volumetric flow rate and increasing bed height and initial oil concentration contained in treated wastewater.

Phytoremediation of Cr and Pb from Soil Irrigated by Wastewater

Riyad Al-Anbari; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Tiba J. Al-Imari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2380-2386
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.13A.1

In order to evaluate the effect of agricultural crops, such as kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.), corn (Zea Mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the removal of Cr and Pb from soil irrigated with wastewater, an experimental pot was conducted at Green House of University of Technology. Three levels of water were used for irrigation included tap water (control) (T1), 50% of wastewater+50% of tap water (50%WW) (T2) and 100% wastewater (100%WW) (T3). The obtained results, indicated that kenaf, and barley have been an effective plant in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiency. Maximum values of removal efficiency were recorded in August 2015 for the (100%WW) and found 85.59%, 82.77, 93.27% of Pb and 85.67, 93.85, 87.24% of Cr for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. Minimum removal efficiencies recorded at (50%WW) treatment for Pb were (5.66, 4.48, 0.99% ) and at control treatment for Cr were ( 0.99, 1.51, 2.37%) for Cr in May 2015 for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. From the results obtained, kenaf, and barley were effective in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiencies.

Using of Treated Wastewater in Irrigation and Jatropha Plant Growth to Protect the Environment From Pollution and Desertification

Azzam H. Al-hadithy; M. Salih; Wafaa G. Al-kaisi; Alham A.Hasson; Udy M.Mhsan; Luay Q. hashim; Gania H. Fadel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 13, Pages 489-497
DOI: 10.30684/etj.32.13A.23

The study comprised to use treated wastewater of each of Rustumiy sewage water and Baghdad company for soft drinks in irrigation and its effect in Jatropha germination plant in desert soil .
five treatments by wastewater have been considered : the first one is control treatment (river water), second and third treatments irrigated by Baghdad company of soft drinks ,and the fourth and fifth treatments irrigated by 50%,100% percent of Rustumiy sewage water station .Each treatment continued for 180 days . Randomized Block Design with five repeation for each of them have been applied .
The result indicated increases in length and diameter of Jatropha plant for each waste water treatment in comparison with control treatment. 50% of each treatment caused increase in plant growth comparison ,the treatment of 100%, Also the results indicated increase in growth plants irrigated by Rustumiy sewage water in comparison with plant irrigated by Baghdad company for soft drinks , Also The results indicated an increased in electric conductivity in extract soil paste after adding the high level waste water in comparison with low level wastewater. Baghdad company for soft drinks wastewater showed little increase in soil pH when 100% treatment was used in comparison with control treatment while soil PH was near to balance state when Rustumiy sewage water was used. The result showed a significant increase in micro nutrients content ( which include Fe , Mn , Zn , Cu , Cd , Pb ) in soil and plant for all treatment compared with the control treatment . this increased was continues with the increase of additional level of wastewater . However all the micro nutrient were within the allowed natural limits and not reached the toxic limits in soil and plant .

Testing the Applicability of Submerged Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Technology for Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Iraq

Talib R. Abbas; Mohammed A. Abdul-Majeed; Inmar N.Ghazi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 19, Pages 3467-3473
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.19.14

Operation of a one module hollow fiber submerged type MBR system was
tested in this work. The system was operated at fixed permeate flowrate of 12 l/hr.
The hydraulic retention time of the aeration tank was about 8.3 hr. The mixed
liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration was maintained in the range 5000-
5500 mg/l. The results show the workability of this system under Iraqi conditions
without any difficulties. About 85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal
was achieved. The value of turbidity is well below 0.61 NTU throughout the
operation time.

Adsorption of Direct Yellow 4 Dye on the Silica Prepared from Locally Available Sodium Silicate

Sameer Hakeem Kareem; Manal Obeid Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 15, Pages 2609-2625
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.15.5

In this study the ability of removing direct yellow 4 dye (DY4) from aqueous solutions using silica as adsorbent was examined. The silica was prepared from locally available sodium silicate. The effect of various experimental parameters contact time, amount of silica used, pH, ionic strength and temperature were investigated in a batch adsorption technique. The obtained experimental data shows that, the adsorption of direct yellow 4 dye was increased directly with increasing concentration, amount of silica, added sodium chloride and temperature in optimum pH (7) and equilibrium time of 45 min. The kinetic data were analyzed through pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo second-order model best represented adsorption kinetics. Additionally, this study used the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms to describe equilibrium adsorption and calculating thermodynamic values. The equilibrium adsorption of direct yellow 4 on silica is best fitted in the Langmuir isotherm (R2 =0.981).

Some Negative Effects of Wastewater on Clayey Soil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 1142-1155
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.22.19

This study deals with the effect of wastewater on some physical, chemical and
consolidation properties of clayey soil and investigates the effect of wastewater flow
beneath buildings’ and structures’ foundations due to; breaking of wastewater pipes,
the permeation of sewage water in to the soil, or its flow on the land that hasn’t been
constructed yet.
Soil samples have been taken from the University of Technology site at a depth (1–
1.5) m and the preparation of samples were in two manners: the first by taking
undisturbed samples which have been flooded with wastewater that allowed to
permeation and flow through soil sample, the second, by taking disturbed samples
saturated with wastewater to ferment.
The soil that used in this study was silty clay with low plasticity (CL-ML) and the
result of this study which lasted for (10) months showed an increase in the chlorides and sulphates ions during the first months and then decreased, it has been noticed an
increase in the concentration of carbonates ions along the period of study and an
increase in organic matter due to wastewater nature.
The results of soil- wastewater interaction showed an increase in liquid limit, plastic
limit and plasticity index for both undisturbed and disturbed samples and the specific
gravity of soil decreased due to wastewater chemical contents. The void ratio has been
increased and preconsolidation pressure decreased which may be attributed to the
dissolution of soluble salts and the influence of carbonate bonding that may be broken
when subjected to load. Also, the results showed an increment in the ability of soil to
be compressed when soil compression index (Cc) increased and soil swelling index (Cr)
increased, too.

The Use of Local Sawdust as an Adsorbent for the Removal of Copper Ion from Wastewater Using Fixed Bed Adsorption

Nagham A. Ageena

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 224-235
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.2.1

The aim of the present work is to study the removal of copper ion presents in
industrial waste water using the local sawdust.
Adsorption column was utilized in the removal process at constant temperature.
The effect of the concentration of copper ion in the range (100-500) mg/L was
studied. Increasing the inlet ion concentration increases the slope of the breakthrough
curve. The effect of bed height in the range of (10-30) cm on copper ion
adsorption from wastewater was studied. The increase in bed height increases the
break point values. The effect of flow rate in the range (0.5-1.5) cm3/sec on copper
ion adsorption also was studied. Increasing the flow rate decreases the breakthrough
time. The best operating conditions in this work for copper ion adsorption
are 100 mg/L of feed, 30 cm bed height and 0.5 cm3/sec feed flow rate. It was
found that the equilibrium relation agrees with Langmuir & Freundlich equations.
Finally accumulation adsorption of copper ion at different operating conditions
was calculated.