Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Tigris river

Water Flow Simulation of Tigris River Between Samara and Baghdad Based on HEC-RAS Model

Imzahim Alwan; Zahraa Majeed; Ali S. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1882-1893
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.1804

This work aims to use the digital elevation model (DEM) or 3-Dimensional surface to model and analyze the water flow in the Tigris River. The first stage of this study is based on filed data acquisition survey at 38 stations.  These stations were adopted to implement the one-dimensional steady and unsteady numerical flow models. The HEC-RAS software was used to implement these models. The most important results of the steady-state model were that the maximum discharge and velocity and minimum flow area were 638.17 m3/sec, 2.12 m/sec and 301.42 m2 respectively. These values occurred at station 66+700. While, the minimum discharge and velocity and maximum flow area were 504.5 m3/sec, 0.13m/sec and 4758.13 m2 respectively. The results of unsteady state were analyzed based on the recorded discharge in the year 2018. The maximum and minimum discharge (flow velocity) were 638.12 m3/sec (2.42 m/sec) at the stations 94+666+7 and 635.57 m3/sec(0.14 m/sec) at station 00+00, respectively. The maximum and minimum Froude number were 0.52 and 0.02 at stations 94+666+7 and 04+800, respectively. These results help to identify the flow choking areas that cause defects. In addition, it can be the base for determining the critical sedimentation stations in which the bed level rises and aggravate the flow choking problem within the considered reach of the Tigris River.

Effect of Tigris River's Stage on the Groundwater Level

Mustafa T. Al-Tahir; Thair S. Khayyun

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 7, Pages 1041-1051
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i7.442

The research studies the effect of change of the Tigris  River's surface stage on groundwater movement by building a three-dimension model  using GMS model for a catchment area in Baghdad city. The model is built and calibrated by using the information of 16 wells for the year 2015 . Three scenarios of river elevation stage are used when the stage  elevation is maximum, average and minimum. The movement of groundwater according to the results was from the north-west to the Tigris River location. Also, the results show the velocity of groundwater in case of the minimum water surface level stage is greater than the other cases because of the high hydraulic gradient. The velocity of groundwater in layer one for all cases is very slow because of the low permeability.

Modeling Of Micro Hydroelectric Power Plants Utilizing Artificial Falls (Weirs) On Reach of Tigris River-Iraq

Thair Sharif Kayyun; Haider Mohammed Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 11, Pages 2106-2122

Weirs are one of the world wide water resources management structures, which are beside their activity in rising water surface to become important source for electricity by using low head hydropower turbines, it improve the hydraulic and the environment of the river reach.140,000m long of Tigris River reach between Al-Fatha and Samraa cities at Salahaldeen province in Iraq was selected to evaluate the usefulness of constructing system of weirs series by calculating the range of improvements in the hydraulic properties, in the environment and estimating the hydroelectric power potential of the study reach. GIS, Global Mapper (Ver.11) and DEM (digital elevation model) combined with surveyed cross-sections of the river bed were used for the delineation and knowing the number of cross – sections and its area. 30 cross sections were used for river reach in this study. One dimensional and steady flow HEC-RAS model was used .It was calibrated to estimate water surface profiles through a group of equations and to calculate the suitable hydraulic conditions along the study reach. The optimum value of manning coefficient was 0.027. The study area was evaluated and the system of five weirs with heights of (3.7 – 6.0 m) was proposed along the river reach. Their locations depend on trial and error process, geometric of the cross – sections and the ratio of the height of the weirs to the design head. The simulated results by using HEC-RAS model were tested to know the reach behavior against three different discharge values (200, 1242, 8616 m3/s), with return period of 1, 1.15 and 42.50 years respectively, and to compare the hydraulic changes in the study reach before and after installing the weirs and to know the net heads for running the low head hydropower turbines. The results illustrate improvement in the reach hydraulic properties of the river reach. According to the criteria of hydro – power system classifications, the type of hydro – power in this case study was small and the suitable turbine was Kaplan turbine with flow rate of 30m3/sec and with ranges of net heads of (3.29 – 6.08 m). 7 and 41 turbines were chooses for the flow rates of 200 and 1242 m3/sec respectively. The Kaplan turbine is running with very high efficiency below the design flow and with suitable runner diameter. The total estimated capacity of one turbine was (5.38 –7.60 MW) and for seven units, it was (37.66 - 53.20 MW) at one weir. These capacities will cover some of the growth in demand to the electricity in Iraq. It covers about (300, 000) capita of population in the study area. It was found that the maximum cost of the electromechanical equipment for hydro project was 42.91 million US$ .

Impact of Medical City and Al-Rasheed Power Plant Effluents on the Water Quality Index value of Tigris River at Baghdad City

Abdul Hameed M.J. Al Obaidy; Eman S. Awad; Zahraa Zahraw

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 4, Pages 715-724

Water quality deterioration in surface water is the impact of anthropogenic activities due to rapid industrialization. Tigris River within Baghdad city is of particular importance in the study of surface water quality because; industrial and municipal wastes, agricultural and runoff from developing areas were mixing with river flow and surrounding water body thereby deteriorating the quality. The aim of the study was to assess the WQI on the basis of Weighted Arithmetic Index in order to evaluate the water quality of the Tigris River for drinking purposes from three stations within Baghdad city during 2013. The WQI was calculated based on the concentration of eleven parameters (pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Turbidity, Nitrite (NO2), Nitrate (NO3), sulphate (SO4) and Zinc). The calculation of WQI showed that the water quality of Tigris river can be rated as very poor and unsuitable conditions at winter and summer, respectively, in the 1st site which is situated at the north of the study area while the water quality of the 2nd site can be categories as unsuitable conditions at all season of study and for 3rd site can be rated as poor and very poor conditions at winter and summer season, respectively. Therefore, there is need a regular monitoring of water quality in order to detect the changes in physio-chemical parameter concentrations.

Evaluating the Effects of Medical City Wastewater on Water Quality of Tigris River

Sedik A.K. Al-Hiyaly; alah; a N. Ma; Warqa; Mohammed N. AL-Azzawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 405-417

Physiochemical characteristics of Tigris river water were examined monthly to assess the possible impacts of wastewater discharged from Baghdad Medical City hospital for the period from October 2012 to September 2013. Four sites were selected during this study; the first was located about 500 meters before the Medical City Complex to act as control. The second was the discharge point of Medical City discharge. The third was almost 500 meters away south the second site, and the forth was located about 1500 meters away from the third site. Water samples were collected monthly from these four sites, at depth of approximately 10-20 cm of water surface and subjected for determination several physiochemical variables such as temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), turbidity, DO, COD, BOD, total hardness, chlorides and nitrate. The obtained results showed that air and water temperature mean values varied from 13.0 ± 2.86 to 31.0 ± 5.28 C ° and from 12.0 ±3.12 to 29.0 ±4.33 C° respectively. Also, mean turbidity values were found to range from 10.0±5.64 to 138.0±14.58 NTU while EC mean value was situated between 621.0±44.67 µS/cm and 1549.0±162.83µS/cm. However, this study has found that the mean values of EC, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, chlorides, total hardness, and nitrate in site 2 (discharge point) were significantly (P≥0.001) higher than those of other sites during the study period. In general, it was found that Tigris river water tends to be alkaline with pH mean values ranging from 7.0 ± 0.42 to 8.8± 0.68 while DO mean values varied from 2.5±0.62 to 9.6±0.94 mg/l. The BOD mean values were found to range from1.7±0.26to5.0 ±1.86 mg/l, while COD mean values varying from56.6±8.98 to688.6±112.42 mg/l. In addition, the current results have shown that total hardness mean values were very high and ranged between 235.0±24.56and 530.0±78.68 mg/l while chlorides mean values ranging from45.0±10.44 to 143.6±21.26 mg/l, but nitrate mean values were found with the range of 2.5±0.86and 28.8±4.98 mg/l. These results, however, have been found to be mostly exceeding those of the permissible limits for Iraqi and WHO standards for protecting surface water.

Applicability of Overall Index of Pollution (OIP) for Surface Water Quality in Assessment of Tigris River Quality within Baghdad

Alhassan H. Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 74-90

Water quality index is one of the most effective tools to communicate information on the quality of water to the concerned citizens and policy makers. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the water quality of Tigris River within Baghdad using the overall Index of Pollution (OIP) for surface water and examine the applicability of OIP for Iraqi water bodies by comparison the results with previous
scientific studies conducted for the same river. Twelve parameters were considered for estimation of OIP in Tigris River. It was found that mathematical equations given by OIP developers to estimate the index does not give a precise calculations, therefor,Microsoft excel (2010) for windows was used to extract value function curves for the
individual parameter. According to OIP, the river water is heavily polluted at Al-Doura WTP and Al-Rasheed WTP and the total coliform bacteria (TC) was the major factor that affects the quality of the river. Based on previous scientific studies, it was noticed
that the OIP is not quite applicable in assessment of Tigris river quality and even the previous studies that were conducted for the same river and used different water quality indices, it was found that some contrarieties and variations in the results of these studies when compared between each other. Therefore, develop a unique water
quality index applicable to Iraqi water bodies is of a prime importance.