Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Cavity

Effect of Cavity in Sandy Soil on Load Distribution of Pile Group

Mohammed Y. Fattah; Karim H. Ibrahim. Al-Helo; Hala H. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 7, Pages 1733-1751

The present study investigates the influence of presence of cavities on adjacent buildings especially in the case of piled structures. The presence of cavity affects on the bearing capacity and settlement of piled foundation.
This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the behavior of model piles embedded in sandy soil of dry unit weight 16.8 kN/m3. Model piles were tested in a sand box with load applied by a hydraulic compression jack and measured by means of a load cell. The settlement of the piles was measured by means of two dial gages; three strain gages were attached on piles to measure the strains and to calculate the load carried by each pile in the group by the strain indicator. Two types of piles (single pile and group of piles (1x2)) were tested in the laboratory as a free standing pile group.
A prototype of a cavity was used and placed adjacent to the piles at different distances from the pile centerline and different depths from the surface. The effect of variation of cavity locations (X), cavity depths (Y), and cavity diameter (d) on the load and settlement of the pile and groups of piles have been studied for all tests.
It was found that the presence of the cavity in the soil reduces the ultimate failure load of the pile. For single pile, the reduction rate is about (10% to 60%). For pile group (1x2), the reduction rate is about (40% to 80%). As intuitively expected, induced pile axial force is largest for the case where the level of the cavity is located below pile tip because the cavity is located within the zone of large displacement

Lateral Resistance of a Single Pile Embedded in Sand with Cavities

Laith Jawad Aziz; Mahmoud R. Mahmoud; Kais T. Shlash

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 15, Pages 2641-2663

The research presents an experimental study of the interaction between cavity and adjacent pile in sandy soil. Experimental studies were performed to investigate the effects of the different factors (such as cavity locations, batter angle of pile, pulling height and vertical dead loads) on the lateral movements, rotations, and ultimate lateral resistance of the pile for three states of soil (dry, water at rest and water flowing laterally).
The analysis of the experimental results of the dry models indicate that the model tests for very deep or shallow cavity with negative distance ratio( the horizontal distance from the centerline of the pile to the centerline of the cavity, S/B=-8) carries more load than the cavity case with positive distance ratio. Different failure modes can be observed for each model tests depending upon the geometry of the problem. The resistance of the batter pile are generally smaller than that of the vertical pile case for cavity with ( depth of the cavity to length of the pile, D/L=1 and S/B=0). Also for the same cavity location, the effects of lateral load position on batter pile are very low. The pile with vertical dead load of (228.6 N) carries more lateral load than pile with no vertical load for the same cavity condition. This behavior is reversed for soil without cavity. In spite of that the constant lateral load is greater than the ultimate lateral resistance of the case (F.S=0.8) during the observations of the lateral displacement with time, failure does not occur for cavity condition with (D/L=0.5 and S/B=-8).
The results of the model tests with the presence of the water show the methodology of the water flowing in the lateral load direction is more dangerous on the pile stability than water at rest state for no cavity condition, but the water at rest becomes very dangerous state for any cavity condition.

Studying the Behavior of Axially Loaded Single Pile in Clayey Soil with Cavities

Shaymaa Tareq Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1619-1630

This paper deals with the interaction between cavities and adjacent axially loaded pile in clayey soil using the three dimensional finite element program (ANSYS 11.0).Three dimensional SOLID45 and SOLID65 elements were used to model the soil and the reinforced concrete pile respectively. Druger- Prager model is chosen to simulate the non-linear elastic-plastic clayey soil, concrete model is used to simulate the nonlinear behavior of concrete pile, the steel bars are assumed to be embedded in concrete section. A comparison of the behavior of load-settlement curve, shear stress on pile (τxy) and lateral soil stress on pile (σx) is made for cases of the variation in the cavity positions in the vertical direction (Z-direction) with case of no cavity. It has been found that the effect of the cavity on the shear stress along pile length (τxy) and on the lateral soil stress on pile
(σx) is ignored to the depth greater than (20%) of the pile length from the ground level. Furthermore, the load-settlement curves are quite difference if compared with reference case of no cavity due to the cavity position near the face of pile.

One Parameter Composite Semigroups of Linear Bounded Operators in Strong Operator Topology of Schatten Class Cp

Samir Kasim Hassan; Al-Taie M; Al-Malki Anam; Al-Attar Abeer; Mustafa Khaleel Ismael; Fatema Ahmed Sadeq; Radhi A .Zboon; Jehad R.Kider; Samir K .Hassan; Hussain J. M. Alalkawi; Raad H. Majid; Rawaa A. Alomairy; Luma Abdul Ghani Zghair; Hadia Kadhim J.Al-Ogili; Assifa M. Mohamad; Abbas Sheyaa Alwan; Haider L. Aneed; Assim H Yousif; Salema Sultan Salman; Abbas Hussien Miry; Abduladhem A.Ali; Mohammed Zeki Al-Faiz; Sabah N. mahmood; Khansaa Dawood Selman; Shaymaa Tareq Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1463-1470

For semigroups of linear bounded operators on Hilbert spaces, the problem of
being in Cp , 0 Keywords