Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Heavy metals


Study on Removal of Vanadium from Iraqi Crude Oil by Prepared Nanozeolites

Amin D. Tamer; Faras Q. Mohammed; Luma H. Mahmood; Marwan Hussein; Mahdie M. Hanyn

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 188-194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.1

The present study has been conducted to investigate the removal of vanadium from Iraqi crude oil by prepared zeolite nanoparticles. Ball milling was used as a top-down approach to synthesize zeolite nanoparticles. Different variables such as adsorbent loading, Vanadium loading, and operating time were investigated for their influence on Vanadium removal. Experimental results of adsorption test show that both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms predict well with the experimental data. Kinetic analysis of the studied system gives the following linear equations, For Langmuir isotherm: 1𝑞𝑒=1.6505 1𝐶𝑒−0.0139 with R2 = 0.9738, For Freundlich isotherm: 𝑙𝑛𝑞𝑒=1.0848 1𝐶𝑒 – 0.4412 with R2 = 0.9711
XRD and EDX analyses reveal the noticeable uptake of zeolite for V. In crude oil, experimental results indicated that for zeolite loading at 1 g/100 ml oil and within approximately 6 h, the removal efficiencies of V were 65, 40, and 30% at vanadium loadings of 70, 80, and 90 ppm respectively. Long-time tests revealed the high capability of zeolite A for vanadium removal.

Synthesis of Magnetic MWCNTs Nanohybrids and Application in Remediation of Chromium Ions in Refinery Wastewater

A. M. ALI

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 838-841

This study presents the preparation of Magnetic - Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (M-MWCNTs) as adsorbents, MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite, in which multiwall carbon nanotubes were coated to magnetic Fe3O4 particles by simplistic sol-gel techniques. The synthesized MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nano-composites were measured via Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X -Ray Diffraction spectrometry (XRD), and Scanning -electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption behaviors of the MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nanocomposites will be evaluated intended for the elimination of chromium ions in diluted refinery wastewater.

Phytoremediation of Cr and Pb from Soil Irrigated by Wastewater

Riyad Al-Anbari; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Tiba J. Al-Imari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2380-2386

In order to evaluate the effect of agricultural crops, such as kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.), corn (Zea Mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the removal of Cr and Pb from soil irrigated with wastewater, an experimental pot was conducted at Green House of University of Technology. Three levels of water were used for irrigation included tap water (control) (T1), 50% of wastewater+50% of tap water (50%WW) (T2) and 100% wastewater (100%WW) (T3). The obtained results, indicated that kenaf, and barley have been an effective plant in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiency. Maximum values of removal efficiency were recorded in August 2015 for the (100%WW) and found 85.59%, 82.77, 93.27% of Pb and 85.67, 93.85, 87.24% of Cr for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. Minimum removal efficiencies recorded at (50%WW) treatment for Pb were (5.66, 4.48, 0.99% ) and at control treatment for Cr were ( 0.99, 1.51, 2.37%) for Cr in May 2015 for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. From the results obtained, kenaf, and barley were effective in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiencies.

Removal Lead and Cadmium Ions in Industrial Wastewater Using Graphene Nano Sheets

Faris Haamoodi AL Ani; Alaa Hussein AL Fatlawi; Gassaq Ahmed Taher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 9, Pages 1903-1914

Industrial wastewater effluents especially that contain heavy metals considered a foremost problem of water pollution in the worldwide environment. Discharging this wastewater,that contains considerable heavy metals' concentrations into ground, water or streams and rivers causes deterioration of the ecological system.The present study aimed to synthesized the graphene nano sheets by electrochemical methodand used for removal of lead Pb+2 and Cadmium Cd+2 ions that found in industrial wastewater. Graphene nano sheets synthetic in this study is characterized by X-ray diffraction XRD, scanning electron microscopy SEM,Raman spectroscopy and Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectra (FT-IR).The abundant oxygen-containing functional groups on the surfaces of graphene nanosheets and strong surface complexion played an important role in (lead and cadmium ions) adsorption. Adsorption properties for (lead and cadmium ions) on graphene nanosheets were regularly investigated, including contact time, pH effect, adsorbent doses and initial concentrations for lead and cadmium solutions. The experimental data were evaluated by Langmuir, Freundlich models in order to describe the equilibrium isotherms. From the adsorption isotherms, the maximum adsorption capacities of lead ions on graphene calculated from Langmuir model were equivalent 476.19 (mg/g) at pH 6.2 and equilibrium contact time 35 min with adsorbent dose (40mg/L), and 188.679 (mg/g) at pH 5.2 and equilibrium contact time 40 min with adsorbent dose (20mg/L) for cadmium ions. The results of the present study demonstrated that graphene has respectable qualifications to removal (Pb+2&Cd+2 ions) which found in industrial wastewater as compared to other adsorbents e.g. activated carbon.

A Comparative Study of Total and Bioavailable Cadmium and Zinc Concentrations and Distributions among Different Land Use Types within Baghdad City

Abdul Hameed M.J. Al Obaidy; Riyad Al-Anbari; Fatima H. Abd Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 4, Pages 685-697

Total and bioavailable levels of Cd and Zn in topsoil (0–20) cm taken from four different land use types (residential, commercial, industrial and mixed) of the urban area of Bagdad, Iraq, were analyzed by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This was with a view to appraising the influence of a variety of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal contamination of the urban soil. Results showed that the range of Cd and Zn were (0.00-6.35) mg/kg and (5.20-219.95) mg/kg respectively. As compared with the calculated world average of unpolluted soils, cadmium displays higher concentrations while the zinc concentration was within this common world range. The level of pollution was assessed using geoaccumulation index (Igeo), for all land use types Igeo decreasing order, followed the order of (Cd> Zn). The relative bioavailability for Cd, and Zn has been observed as 2.46-5 % and 2.80-9.78 % respectively. It can be concluded that, although total concentrations of the examined heavy metals were generally high, but at the same time the bioavailable ones were relatively low. This can be an indicator that with the recent environmental factors (alkaline to sub-alkaline soil pH), the toxicity of heavy metals to humans was in its minimum level.

Comparison Study of Environmental Impacts between Mid (CML) and End Point (Eco 95) Methods for Babel Lead Acid Battery Production Processes

May George Kassir; Lamyaa Mohammed Dawood; Hind Ihsan Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 4, Pages 725-738

In this research, quantitative analysis, comparison of the environmental impacts for Iraqi Babel Lead acid battery (capacity of 135 Amps/hr) throughout the production processes is conducted for 2012 year, according to the ISO (14040-14043) series of standards. Two impact assessment methods employed are; Centre of Environmental Studies (CML–midpoint) and (Eco 95-endpoint). Chain Management Life Cycle Analysis [CMLCA] software is used to process and generate the collected data. In CML (mid-point) method four potential environmental impact categories are; [Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification, Eutrophication, and Human toxicity], while Eco 95 (endpoint) method evaluates six categories of environmental impact are; [Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification, Eutrophication, Heavy metals, Summer, and Winter Smog]. Results generated according to CML method reveal that formation process as the highest contributor to GWP by (26%), Eco 95 declared contribution to the GWP of the same process by (4%). Through CML (mid-point) the assembly process is identified as having the most significant impact on acidification by (50%), while Eco 95 method quantify acidification for the same process by (4%). Human toxicity is allocated by (60%) contribution in the assembly process by CML method, whereas the same process is identified as the most hazardous process of (93%) contribution heavy metals impact is, and winter smog (3%) according to Eco 95 method. Formation process is the highest contributor to Eutrophication according CML method, while Eutiphication is not of concern, according to (Eco 95) for this process. It is concluded that the environmental impacts of Babel battery spread over the production processes and every process have certain environmental impact category (nerveless the quantifying method). Therefore, it is recommended using both methods to expose all the environmental categories, and to control the environmental aspects of the company, also it is recommended to use new technologies for battery production that have less impact on the environment.

Compared the Efficiency of Two Methods (Chemical and Biological) for Removal (Cadmium, Copper and Zinc) from Contaminated Water

Muntaha N. Althweni; Jenan H. Mohammed; Mayami H. Awad; Teba S. Ganee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 4, Pages 100-107

In the present study two methods were used to compare the efficiency of removing heavy metals (cadmium, copper and zinc) from contaminated water, and by applying the method of adding a chemical polymer dynamically (Alginic acid) and the method of adding a biological pure culture type of (green algae), different concentrations, respectively (1.0, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 ppm) was prepared for each element. Both of these methods have been applied and the same working conditions of temperature and pH of the time (72 hours), and then detect the level of residual concentrations of the elements mentioned using Flame atomic spectroscopy technique for measuring the absorbance. The results showed that the two methods effective in drag tested with the superiority of biopolymer algae free in reducing cadmium and copper. While convergence efficient ways to remove the zinc from aqueous media contaminated.

Use of (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Mutant in Bioremediation of Some Heavy Metals

Adil T. Al-Musawi; Mohammed O. Muhyaddin; Mohammed A. Al-Soufi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 68-75

The study aimed to use of baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Bioremediation of some heavy metals and improving its capability by mutation. The dried baker's yeast from Aldnaamaya China Company used in this study. The yeast subjected to serial diagnostic tests to ensure its belongings to S. cerevisiae. To improve the ability of the yeast to remove the metals, it was mutated by Nitrosoguanidine, and among different mutants, it was found that three of them designated as Sc6-1, Sc6-2 and Sc6-3, were more resistant to the antifungal cycloheximide in a concentration of 5 and 10 µg/ ml. These mutants were selected to study their efficiency to remove metals under the specific circumstances of attachment 10 minutes, pH 6, temperature 25○C, the stirring speed 150 rpm/ min, by using an inoculums size 1×106 cells/ ml in a solution containing 1mg/L of from each metal. it was found that the mutant Sc6-2 has gain an excellent efficiency to remove of chromium, nickel, cobalt, cadmium, lead, iron and copper in combined at a rate 72.23%, while the removal efficiency of these elements by the other mutants Sc6-1 and Sc6-3 were 64.67% and 65.37% respectively.

Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Soil Affected by Industrial Activities

Riyad Al-Anbari; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al Obaidy; Fatima H. Abd Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 526-534

Twenty soil samples were collected in the Al-Duraa Refinery Industrial District. The soil samples displayed high concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn than the calculated worldwide mean of unpolluted soils. The geoaccumulation index indicated that the soil samples were strongly polluted by Cd and moderately to strongly polluted byPb. The level of pollution by Ni was moderate, whereas Cr and Zn observed unpolluted to moderately pollution. Furthermore, the result of the calculated enrichment factor (4.11-227.49) indicated significant to extremely high enriched and suggesting an important role of anthropogenic pollution due to various industrial activities done by the refinery.

Evaluation of Heavy Metals Content in Local and Imported Bottled Drinking Water

S.A.K. Al-Hiyaly; Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Al Obaidy; Athmar Abdul Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 13, Pages 3086-3092

Bottled drinking water may subject to physical, chemical and biological contamination due to water resources, technical process, storage and marketing facilities. Heavy metals seem to be the most important pollutants of bottled drinking water for various reasons and these metals such as lead, chromium, cadmium, and others may have several public health impacts. The current study was designed to assess the bottled water content of several heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in 38 samples of local and imported bottled drinking water. Also other parameters such as pH, EC were examined. A total of 38 trade mark bottled drinking water of both locally produced and imported samples were collected from different Iraqi towns for the period November 2010 and June 2011. The results of all examined variables were within Iraqi standard of drinking water except for Mn, Pb, and Zn where they found in some local bottled water samples higher than those of Iraqi standard. Also some imported samples had Pb content greater than that of Iraqi standard. However, further chemical and biological tests were needed.

Removal of Ni (Ii) and Cd (Ii) Ions From Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on to Synthetic Zeolite

Alhassan H. Ismail; Zainab Ali Abd-aljaleel; Ali S. Jaffer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 8, Pages 1497-1507

In this study, the removal of Ni (II) and Cd (II) ions from aqueous solutions using the adsorption process onto synthetic Zeolite has been investigated as a function of initial metal concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. In order to find out the effect of temperature on adsorption, the experiments were conducted at 20, 30, 40, 50 °C and 15, 30, 50 °C for Ni (II) and Cd (II) respectively. Kinetics data show that at higher temperatures, the rate of adsorption on the synthetic Zeolite is much higher compared to that on the lower temperatures. The optimum pH for Ni (II) and Cd (II) removal is found out to be 5.5 and 6 respectively. The batch method has been employed using initial metal concentrations in solution ranging from 25 to 100 mg/l for Ni (II) and from 10 to 25 for Cd (II) at optimum pH. An Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used for measuring the heavy metal concentrations before and after adsorption. Langmuir, Freundlich, models were applied to adsorption equilibrium data to find the best amongst these models. This study has demonstrated that Zeolite was capable to remove 90% of nickel and cadmium from solution of different concentrations. This implies that Zeolite is an important in the removal process. These capabilities of Zeolite could lead to development of a viable and cost effective technology for removal of these pollutants from wastewater for countries like Iraq.

Removal of Heavy Metals Using Chemicals Precipitation

Balasim A. AbiD; Mahmood M. BrbootI; Najah M. Al-ShuwaikI

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 595-612

The single component and multi-component hydroxide precipitation and
adsorption were studied for different heavy metals namely Iron (III), Chromium
(III), Copper (II), Lead (II), Nickel (II), and Cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions.
By using the jar tester Magnesia (MgO) was used as a precipitator at different
doses and compared with other chemicals like lime (CaO) and caustic soda
(NaOH). The treatment involves the addition of either magnesia or lime-water
suspensions (combined with cationic polyelectrolyte, CPE) in various doses, 1.0 –
5.0 g/l for the metal samples to study the effect of varying doses on the treatment
efficiency. The results show that the percent removal of metal ions increases to
about 99 % with increasing the MgO dose to some limits. The optimum values of
MgO doses were found to be 1.5-3.0 g/l. The pH value ranges are 9.5 to 10 with
MgO precipitant and pH of 11.5 to 12 with CaO precipitant. In the jar experiment
the rotation speed, N, 180-200 rpm, (G of 460-480 s-1) of mixing for two minutes
was the most favorable speed of rapid mixing and the slow mixing speed of 15-30
rpm, G of (14-35 s-1), for twenty minutes gave the best results.At the best operating
conditions of the pilot plant, the removal efficiency of metal ions was more than
97% at doses of MgO (1.0-4.0 g/l).

Removal of Heavy Metals From Waste Water By Date Palm Tree Wastes

Layla A. A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 119-125

Wastes of the Iraqi date palm tree was used to study removal of heavy metal
cations ( Cu+2, Cd+2& Zn+2) from simulated artificial waste water using batch
adsorption process.
The dried parts of the date palm wastes, were grinded to ≤1mm in size and used
directly in different adsorbent / metal ion ratios, starting with metal ion
concentration of (1000ppm).
Influence of contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent loading
weight, on removal percentage were investigated; experiments were carried out at
room temperature. 25Co and pH value of (5-6).
Date palm wastes succeeded to achieve 90% removal for Cu+2 ions, 57.5% for Cd+2
ions & 37.5% for Zn+2 ions within (60 min) contact time at adsorbent loading ratio
of 30 g/l. Removal values for mixed ions were lower due to competition
&interaction between ions, (80% Cu+2, 51% Cd+2 & 33% Zn+2 )

Removal of Lead and Copper Ions onto Granular Activated Carbon in Batch and Fixed Bed A Dsorber

Abbass H. Sulaymon; Balasim A. Abid; Jenan A. Al Najar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 12, Pages 2336-2351

The adsorption of lead and copper ions onto granular activated carbon (DARCO
20-40 mesh) in a single component system has been studied using fixed bed adsorbers.
A film-pore diffusion model has been developed to predict the fixed bed breakthrough
curves for the two metal ions. This model takes account both external and internal
mass transfer resistance as well as axial dispersion with non-linear isotherm. The
effects of flow rate, bed height and initial metal ion concentration has been studied.
Batch adsorber experiments were conducted to estimate the parameters required for
fixed bed model, such as adsorption equilibrium isotherm constants the external mass
transfer coefficient and pore diffusion coefficient by fitting the experimental data with
theoretical model. The batch isotherm experimental data was correlated using
Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption isotherm data follow the
Langmuir model better than Freundlich model. The pore diffusion coefficient was
obtained using pore diffusion model for batch adsorber by matching between the
experimental data and predicted data from the model. The results show that the filmpore
diffusion model used for fixed bed adsorber provide a good description of the
adsorption process for adsorption of metal ions Pb(II) and Cu(II) onto activated carbon
in fixed bed adsorber.