Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Heavy metals


Heavy Metals Accumulation in Two Types of Tree Leaves from Baghdad Urban Areas

Maha A. Mahmood; Athmar A.M. AL-Mashhady; Ali N. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 350-355
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.8

It is well known that environmental pollution by many heavy
metals is a serious problem to the natural ecosystem due to their toxic
effects. Most heavy metals such as Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn are needed by
various organisms but at certain concentrations is very necessary for
both plants and animals. However, it has been suggested that ever green
plant trees can assist in controlling such pollution via various methods
where one method is the ability of these plant trees to absorb heavy
metals from contaminated soils. The current work was designed to assess
Cd, Mn and Pb plant content in two tree species (Eucalyptus sp. and
Albizia sp.) collected from Tourist Baghdad Island (TBI) situated in AlFh’hama region. It seems very obvious that these examined trees can be
regarded as certain heavy metals eliminator where eucalyptus tree has
shown considerable ability in removing all examined heavy metals which
were significantly higher than that of Albizia trees.

Study on Removal of Vanadium from Iraqi Crude Oil by Prepared Nanozeolites

Amin D. Tamer; Faras Q. Mohammed; Luma H. Mahmood; Marwan Hussein; Mahdie M. Hanyn

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 188-194
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.1

The present study has been conducted to investigate the removal of vanadium from Iraqi crude oil by prepared zeolite nanoparticles. Ball milling was used as a top-down approach to synthesize zeolite nanoparticles. Different variables such as adsorbent loading, Vanadium loading, and operating time were investigated for their influence on Vanadium removal. Experimental results of adsorption test show that both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms predict well with the experimental data. Kinetic analysis of the studied system gives the following linear equations, For Langmuir isotherm: 1𝑞𝑒=1.6505 1𝐶𝑒−0.0139 with R2 = 0.9738, For Freundlich isotherm: 𝑙𝑛𝑞𝑒=1.0848 1𝐶𝑒 – 0.4412 with R2 = 0.9711
XRD and EDX analyses reveal the noticeable uptake of zeolite for V. In crude oil, experimental results indicated that for zeolite loading at 1 g/100 ml oil and within approximately 6 h, the removal efficiencies of V were 65, 40, and 30% at vanadium loadings of 70, 80, and 90 ppm respectively. Long-time tests revealed the high capability of zeolite A for vanadium removal.

Cement Based Solidification/Stabilization Leaching Performances of Selected Heavy Metal Ions under Different pH Extractions

Basim A. Hussain A. Hussain; Shahlaa E. Ebrahim; Abbas H. Sulaymon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 2C, Pages 268-274
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.2C.11

Liquid to solid partitioning as a function of pH leaching Procedure LSP EPA method 1313 was carried out to test the effectiveness , performance and efficiency of the cement-based solidification / stabilization (S/S) of heavy metals contaminated sand samples using Ordinary Portland Cement OPC type A . Two cement based mix designs ( 7 and 25 % ) have been applied to (S/S) sand contaminated samples with different heavy metal ions ( Pb , Cu , Cr , and Cd ) having the following concentrations ( 500 , 1500 and 3000 mg / kg ). Fixed water to cement ratio of 0.45 was maintained for all the experiments. Effective retention levels for the heavy metal ions was achieved using a 25 % OPC mix ratio to (S/S) the contaminated samples even when the extraction solutions were of pH levels as low as 2. Leaching experiments showed that as the pH level of the extraction solution is reduces and as the OPC content in the (S/S) samples is reduced the more heavy metal ions that can leach out. Up to 80 % of chromium, cadmium, lead, and copper ions leachability can be prevented when higher cement content is introduced to the solidification / stabilization process under the same pH extraction. Acidic extraction effects and solubilized the Calcium – Silica – Hydrate (C-S-H) gel that is created by the OPC binder, which holds, and contain the heavy metal ions and thus results in more release of those ions into the extraction solutions. The alkaline environments provided by the cement binder are believed to have participated in the precipitation of several metal ions such as cadmium and lead io, leading to their less detection in the leaching extracts. Alkaline extraction experiments (pH 8-13) showed that the mobility of the metal ions under the same experimental conditions followed the order of pb> Cr > Cu > Cd in samples of various cement contents.

Removal of Cobalt (Co(II)) from Aqueous Solution by Amino Functionalized SBA-15

Anaam A. Sabri; Talib M. Albayati; Dalia B. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 7A, Pages 703-708
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.7A.1

Mesoporous silica SBA-15 material was synthesized and functionalized by post synthesis method with amino functional group (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane) to investigate its potential use as an adsorbent for cobalt (Co(II)) removal from aqueous solution. Several characterization methods were used for identifying the material characteristics before and after functionalization, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted and different variables that affected the removal of cobalt ions were studied, such as pH (1-6), contact time (0-150min), initial concentration (20-120mg/L) and adsorbent dose (0.025-0.3g). It was found that amino functional group was very effective in increasing the percentage removal of (Co(II)) as compared with non-functionalized SBA-15. The percentage removal of these ions were increased with the increasing of pH (up to 5), contact time and NH2-SBA-15 dose, while the increase of the initial concentration of Co(II) ions led to decrease in it.

Assessment of Some Heavy Metal Concentrations in Drilling Mud samples in Az Zubair Oil Field, Basra, Iraq

Sahar A. Amin; Abdul Hamid M. J. Al- Obiady; Rana R. Alani; Athmar A. Al-Mashhady

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 1B, Pages 68-75
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.1B.12

Analysis of eight heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn,
Ni, Pb and Zn) of 14 drilling mud samples collected from oil well at different
depths which is located in AZ Zubair oil field-Basra was done in this study .
The samples were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Obtained results indicated that the heavy metal concentrations range from the
lowest value of 1.66mg/kg for Cd to the highest value of 1235.86mg/kg for
Fe. The abundance trend for the heavy metals concentration was in the
descending order of Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Four parameters:
Enrichment Factor (EF), Contamination Factor (CF), Geo-accumulation
Index (Igeo) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) were assessed in order to
evaluate the degree of contamination.

Synthesis of Magnetic MWCNTs Nanohybrids and Application in Remediation of Chromium Ions in Refinery Wastewater

A. M. ALI

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 838-841
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.8A.8

This study presents the preparation of Magnetic - Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (M-MWCNTs) as adsorbents, MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nanocomposite, in which multiwall carbon nanotubes were coated to magnetic Fe3O4 particles by simplistic sol-gel techniques. The synthesized MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nano-composites were measured via Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X -Ray Diffraction spectrometry (XRD), and Scanning -electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption behaviors of the MWCNTs/Fe3O4 nanocomposites will be evaluated intended for the elimination of chromium ions in diluted refinery wastewater.

Phytoremediation of Cr and Pb from Soil Irrigated by Wastewater

Riyad Al-Anbari; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Tiba J. Al-Imari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2380-2386
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.13A.1

In order to evaluate the effect of agricultural crops, such as kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.), corn (Zea Mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the removal of Cr and Pb from soil irrigated with wastewater, an experimental pot was conducted at Green House of University of Technology. Three levels of water were used for irrigation included tap water (control) (T1), 50% of wastewater+50% of tap water (50%WW) (T2) and 100% wastewater (100%WW) (T3). The obtained results, indicated that kenaf, and barley have been an effective plant in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiency. Maximum values of removal efficiency were recorded in August 2015 for the (100%WW) and found 85.59%, 82.77, 93.27% of Pb and 85.67, 93.85, 87.24% of Cr for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. Minimum removal efficiencies recorded at (50%WW) treatment for Pb were (5.66, 4.48, 0.99% ) and at control treatment for Cr were ( 0.99, 1.51, 2.37%) for Cr in May 2015 for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. From the results obtained, kenaf, and barley were effective in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiencies.

Removal Lead and Cadmium Ions in Industrial Wastewater Using Graphene Nano Sheets

Faris Haamoodi AL Ani; Alaa Hussein AL Fatlawi; Gassaq Ahmed Taher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 9, Pages 1903-1914
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.9A.16

Industrial wastewater effluents especially that contain heavy metals considered a foremost problem of water pollution in the worldwide environment. Discharging this wastewater,that contains considerable heavy metals' concentrations into ground, water or streams and rivers causes deterioration of the ecological system.The present study aimed to synthesized the graphene nano sheets by electrochemical methodand used for removal of lead Pb+2 and Cadmium Cd+2 ions that found in industrial wastewater. Graphene nano sheets synthetic in this study is characterized by X-ray diffraction XRD, scanning electron microscopy SEM,Raman spectroscopy and Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectra (FT-IR).The abundant oxygen-containing functional groups on the surfaces of graphene nanosheets and strong surface complexion played an important role in (lead and cadmium ions) adsorption. Adsorption properties for (lead and cadmium ions) on graphene nanosheets were regularly investigated, including contact time, pH effect, adsorbent doses and initial concentrations for lead and cadmium solutions. The experimental data were evaluated by Langmuir, Freundlich models in order to describe the equilibrium isotherms. From the adsorption isotherms, the maximum adsorption capacities of lead ions on graphene calculated from Langmuir model were equivalent 476.19 (mg/g) at pH 6.2 and equilibrium contact time 35 min with adsorbent dose (40mg/L), and 188.679 (mg/g) at pH 5.2 and equilibrium contact time 40 min with adsorbent dose (20mg/L) for cadmium ions. The results of the present study demonstrated that graphene has respectable qualifications to removal (Pb+2&Cd+2 ions) which found in industrial wastewater as compared to other adsorbents e.g. activated carbon.

A Comparative Study of Total and Bioavailable Cadmium and Zinc Concentrations and Distributions among Different Land Use Types within Baghdad City

Abdul Hameed M.J. Al Obaidy; Riyad Al-Anbari; Fatima H. Abd Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 685-697
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112931

Total and bioavailable levels of Cd and Zn in topsoil (0–20) cm taken from four different land use types (residential, commercial, industrial and mixed) of the urban area of Bagdad, Iraq, were analyzed by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This was with a view to appraising the influence of a variety of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal contamination of the urban soil. Results showed that the range of Cd and Zn were (0.00-6.35) mg/kg and (5.20-219.95) mg/kg respectively. As compared with the calculated world average of unpolluted soils, cadmium displays higher concentrations while the zinc concentration was within this common world range. The level of pollution was assessed using geoaccumulation index (Igeo), for all land use types Igeo decreasing order, followed the order of (Cd> Zn). The relative bioavailability for Cd, and Zn has been observed as 2.46-5 % and 2.80-9.78 % respectively. It can be concluded that, although total concentrations of the examined heavy metals were generally high, but at the same time the bioavailable ones were relatively low. This can be an indicator that with the recent environmental factors (alkaline to sub-alkaline soil pH), the toxicity of heavy metals to humans was in its minimum level.

Comparison Study of Environmental Impacts between Mid (CML) and End Point (Eco 95) Methods for Babel Lead Acid Battery Production Processes

May George Kassir; Lamyaa Mohammed Dawood; Hind Ihsan Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 725-738
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.4A.4

In this research, quantitative analysis, comparison of the environmental impacts for Iraqi Babel Lead acid battery (capacity of 135 Amps/hr) throughout the production processes is conducted for 2012 year, according to the ISO (14040-14043) series of standards. Two impact assessment methods employed are; Centre of Environmental Studies (CML–midpoint) and (Eco 95-endpoint). Chain Management Life Cycle Analysis [CMLCA] software is used to process and generate the collected data. In CML (mid-point) method four potential environmental impact categories are; [Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification, Eutrophication, and Human toxicity], while Eco 95 (endpoint) method evaluates six categories of environmental impact are; [Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification, Eutrophication, Heavy metals, Summer, and Winter Smog]. Results generated according to CML method reveal that formation process as the highest contributor to GWP by (26%), Eco 95 declared contribution to the GWP of the same process by (4%). Through CML (mid-point) the assembly process is identified as having the most significant impact on acidification by (50%), while Eco 95 method quantify acidification for the same process by (4%). Human toxicity is allocated by (60%) contribution in the assembly process by CML method, whereas the same process is identified as the most hazardous process of (93%) contribution heavy metals impact is, and winter smog (3%) according to Eco 95 method. Formation process is the highest contributor to Eutrophication according CML method, while Eutiphication is not of concern, according to (Eco 95) for this process. It is concluded that the environmental impacts of Babel battery spread over the production processes and every process have certain environmental impact category (nerveless the quantifying method). Therefore, it is recommended using both methods to expose all the environmental categories, and to control the environmental aspects of the company, also it is recommended to use new technologies for battery production that have less impact on the environment.

Compared the Efficiency of Two Methods (Chemical and Biological) for Removal (Cadmium, Copper and Zinc) from Contaminated Water

Muntaha N. Althweni; Jenan H. Mohammed; Mayami H. Awad; Teba S. Ganee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue Issue 4 A, Pages 100-107
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2016.112942

In the present study two methods were used to compare the efficiency of removing heavy metals (cadmium, copper and zinc) from contaminated water, and by applying the method of adding a chemical polymer dynamically (Alginic acid) and the method of adding a biological pure culture type of (green algae), different concentrations, respectively (1.0, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 ppm) was prepared for each element. Both of these methods have been applied and the same working conditions of temperature and pH of the time (72 hours), and then detect the level of residual concentrations of the elements mentioned using Flame atomic spectroscopy technique for measuring the absorbance. The results showed that the two methods effective in drag tested with the superiority of biopolymer algae free in reducing cadmium and copper. While convergence efficient ways to remove the zinc from aqueous media contaminated.

Use of (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Mutant in Bioremediation of Some Heavy Metals

Adil T. Al-Musawi; Mohammed O. Muhyaddin; Mohammed A. Al-Soufi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 68-75
DOI: 10.30684/etj.34.3B.16

The study aimed to use of baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Bioremediation of some heavy metals and improving its capability by mutation. The dried baker's yeast from Aldnaamaya China Company used in this study. The yeast subjected to serial diagnostic tests to ensure its belongings to S. cerevisiae. To improve the ability of the yeast to remove the metals, it was mutated by Nitrosoguanidine, and among different mutants, it was found that three of them designated as Sc6-1, Sc6-2 and Sc6-3, were more resistant to the antifungal cycloheximide in a concentration of 5 and 10 µg/ ml. These mutants were selected to study their efficiency to remove metals under the specific circumstances of attachment 10 minutes, pH 6, temperature 25○C, the stirring speed 150 rpm/ min, by using an inoculums size 1×106 cells/ ml in a solution containing 1mg/L of from each metal. it was found that the mutant Sc6-2 has gain an excellent efficiency to remove of chromium, nickel, cobalt, cadmium, lead, iron and copper in combined at a rate 72.23%, while the removal efficiency of these elements by the other mutants Sc6-1 and Sc6-3 were 64.67% and 65.37% respectively.

Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Soil Affected by Industrial Activities

Riyad Al-Anbari; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al Obaidy; Fatima H. Abd Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 526-534

Twenty soil samples were collected in the Al-Duraa Refinery Industrial District. The soil samples displayed high concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn than the calculated worldwide mean of unpolluted soils. The geoaccumulation index indicated that the soil samples were strongly polluted by Cd and moderately to strongly polluted byPb. The level of pollution by Ni was moderate, whereas Cr and Zn observed unpolluted to moderately pollution. Furthermore, the result of the calculated enrichment factor (4.11-227.49) indicated significant to extremely high enriched and suggesting an important role of anthropogenic pollution due to various industrial activities done by the refinery.

Evaluation of Heavy Metals Content in Local and Imported Bottled Drinking Water

S.A.K. Al-Hiyaly; Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Al Obaidy; Athmar Abdul Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 13, Pages 3086-3092
DOI: 10.30684/etj.32.13A.1

Bottled drinking water may subject to physical, chemical and biological contamination due to water resources, technical process, storage and marketing facilities. Heavy metals seem to be the most important pollutants of bottled drinking water for various reasons and these metals such as lead, chromium, cadmium, and others may have several public health impacts. The current study was designed to assess the bottled water content of several heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in 38 samples of local and imported bottled drinking water. Also other parameters such as pH, EC were examined. A total of 38 trade mark bottled drinking water of both locally produced and imported samples were collected from different Iraqi towns for the period November 2010 and June 2011. The results of all examined variables were within Iraqi standard of drinking water except for Mn, Pb, and Zn where they found in some local bottled water samples higher than those of Iraqi standard. Also some imported samples had Pb content greater than that of Iraqi standard. However, further chemical and biological tests were needed.

Removal of Copper (II) from Wastewater Using Modified Carbon Nanotubes

Mohammed Ibrahim; Adnan A. AbdulRazak; Ayad Dari Jaafar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2228-2241
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.12A.2

In the present work, carbon nanotubes were prepared by Chemical Vapor
Deposition (CVD) method, acetylene gas was used as a carbon source. In CVD
system, a catalytic growth of CNTs is carried out by decomposition of acetylene
(C2H2 ) at a temperature of 750 0C for one hour ,argon is used as an oxidation
protection gas. The carbon nanotubes produced are purified to remove impurities
such as metal catalyst and then functionalized by treating with HNO3. Scanning
Electron Microscopy (SEM), FT-IR spectra and BET for Surface Area measurement
technique were used for characterization of CNTs. CNTs with about 30 nm in
diameter and with length of several microns were obtained. The effects of initial
concentration of metal (ppm), pH, carbon nanotube (CNT) dosage (mg) and contact
time (min) on the adsorption of Cu+2 ion were studied.
The results show that the pH of aqueous solution is one of the major parameters
that control the adsorption of ion at the solid-water interfaces. Maximum removal
percentage of Cu+2 species is achieved at pH 8, CNT dosage of 50 mg/L and initial
concentration of 50 mg/L and it is 98.39%. The constants of Langmuir and
Freundlich models are obtained from fitting the adsorption equilibrium data. The
correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich models are 0.75 and 1,
respectively, indicating that the Freundlich model is more appropriate to describe the
adsorption characteristics of Cu+2 onto CNTs.

The Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Baquba Water Treatment Plant

Mudhar A. Alwahab Rajib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 12, Pages 2251-2260
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.12A.4

This study was achieved for the purpose of determining concentrations of inorganic
heavy metals for Baquba drinking water by taking samples from the water treatment plant
during the period (February 2011) to (February 2012), and these tests included heavy
metals concentrations: iron, copper, lead, nickel, and cadmium. Then, the results were
compared with the standard of World Health Organization to determine the expected
increase in concentrations of these elements, accompanied with the side effects on human
health.
According to this study, it was reached to the fact that the station drinking water
concentrations are accepted with iron, copper and lead but with high cadmium
concentrations more than recommended international standards with respect to most
samples. Also, these tests represented the presence of discrepancy in nickel
concentrations along the tested period above and below the permissible limit.
According to the researcher; this is caused by the disposed of sewage waste water in
the course of river in some districts of the province without any treatments and also by
the excessive using of fertilizers in the agricultural fields near the banks of the river.
It is unfortunate that the station has low efficiency in minerals treatment due to the
lack of modern techniques.

Removal of Ni (Ii) and Cd (Ii) Ions From Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on to Synthetic Zeolite

Alhassan H. Ismail; Zainab Ali Abd-aljaleel; Ali S. Jaffer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 8, Pages 1497-1507
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.8A6

In this study, the removal of Ni (II) and Cd (II) ions from aqueous solutions using the adsorption process onto synthetic Zeolite has been investigated as a function of initial metal concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. In order to find out the effect of temperature on adsorption, the experiments were conducted at 20, 30, 40, 50 °C and 15, 30, 50 °C for Ni (II) and Cd (II) respectively. Kinetics data show that at higher temperatures, the rate of adsorption on the synthetic Zeolite is much higher compared to that on the lower temperatures. The optimum pH for Ni (II) and Cd (II) removal is found out to be 5.5 and 6 respectively. The batch method has been employed using initial metal concentrations in solution ranging from 25 to 100 mg/l for Ni (II) and from 10 to 25 for Cd (II) at optimum pH. An Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used for measuring the heavy metal concentrations before and after adsorption. Langmuir, Freundlich, models were applied to adsorption equilibrium data to find the best amongst these models. This study has demonstrated that Zeolite was capable to remove 90% of nickel and cadmium from solution of different concentrations. This implies that Zeolite is an important in the removal process. These capabilities of Zeolite could lead to development of a viable and cost effective technology for removal of these pollutants from wastewater for countries like Iraq.

Removal of Heavy Metals Using Chemicals Precipitation

Balasim A. AbiD; Mahmood M. BrbootI; Najah M. Al-ShuwaikI

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 595-612

The single component and multi-component hydroxide precipitation and
adsorption were studied for different heavy metals namely Iron (III), Chromium
(III), Copper (II), Lead (II), Nickel (II), and Cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions.
By using the jar tester Magnesia (MgO) was used as a precipitator at different
doses and compared with other chemicals like lime (CaO) and caustic soda
(NaOH). The treatment involves the addition of either magnesia or lime-water
suspensions (combined with cationic polyelectrolyte, CPE) in various doses, 1.0 –
5.0 g/l for the metal samples to study the effect of varying doses on the treatment
efficiency. The results show that the percent removal of metal ions increases to
about 99 % with increasing the MgO dose to some limits. The optimum values of
MgO doses were found to be 1.5-3.0 g/l. The pH value ranges are 9.5 to 10 with
MgO precipitant and pH of 11.5 to 12 with CaO precipitant. In the jar experiment
the rotation speed, N, 180-200 rpm, (G of 460-480 s-1) of mixing for two minutes
was the most favorable speed of rapid mixing and the slow mixing speed of 15-30
rpm, G of (14-35 s-1), for twenty minutes gave the best results.At the best operating
conditions of the pilot plant, the removal efficiency of metal ions was more than
97% at doses of MgO (1.0-4.0 g/l).

Removal of Heavy Metals From Waste Water By Date Palm Tree Wastes

Layla A. A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 119-125

Wastes of the Iraqi date palm tree was used to study removal of heavy metal
cations ( Cu+2, Cd+2& Zn+2) from simulated artificial waste water using batch
adsorption process.
The dried parts of the date palm wastes, were grinded to ≤1mm in size and used
directly in different adsorbent / metal ion ratios, starting with metal ion
concentration of (1000ppm).
Influence of contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent loading
weight, on removal percentage were investigated; experiments were carried out at
room temperature. 25Co and pH value of (5-6).
Date palm wastes succeeded to achieve 90% removal for Cu+2 ions, 57.5% for Cd+2
ions & 37.5% for Zn+2 ions within (60 min) contact time at adsorbent loading ratio
of 30 g/l. Removal values for mixed ions were lower due to competition
&interaction between ions, (80% Cu+2, 51% Cd+2 & 33% Zn+2 )

Removal of Lead and Copper Ions onto Granular Activated Carbon in Batch and Fixed Bed A Dsorber

Abbass H. Sulaymon; Balasim A. Abid; Jenan A. Al Najar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 12, Pages 2336-2351

The adsorption of lead and copper ions onto granular activated carbon (DARCO
20-40 mesh) in a single component system has been studied using fixed bed adsorbers.
A film-pore diffusion model has been developed to predict the fixed bed breakthrough
curves for the two metal ions. This model takes account both external and internal
mass transfer resistance as well as axial dispersion with non-linear isotherm. The
effects of flow rate, bed height and initial metal ion concentration has been studied.
Batch adsorber experiments were conducted to estimate the parameters required for
fixed bed model, such as adsorption equilibrium isotherm constants the external mass
transfer coefficient and pore diffusion coefficient by fitting the experimental data with
theoretical model. The batch isotherm experimental data was correlated using
Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption isotherm data follow the
Langmuir model better than Freundlich model. The pore diffusion coefficient was
obtained using pore diffusion model for batch adsorber by matching between the
experimental data and predicted data from the model. The results show that the filmpore
diffusion model used for fixed bed adsorber provide a good description of the
adsorption process for adsorption of metal ions Pb(II) and Cu(II) onto activated carbon
in fixed bed adsorber.