Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Nano

Improving Drilling Fluid Properties by Using Nano-Additives

D. Mahmood; N.S.AL-Zubaidi; A. A. Alwasiti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 10, Pages 1034-1041

Nanotechnology is one of the most important techniques in recent days. Using Nano-additives to improve drilling fluids properties in order to meet the modern drilling process requirement is still being debated till date. In this study, three Nano-materials (magnesium oxide MgO, titanium dioxide TiO2 and Graphene) were used to improve the rheological and filtration properties as well as Clay Yield. The weight of Nano-materials were (0.02, 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8) gm. The results showed that the rheological properties were the same with Graphene and TiO2, while MgO gave the best results of rheological and filtration properties and with a higher values of yield point and gel strength. The higher value of Clay Yield obtained by0.2wt % (0.8 gm) of MgO was (173bbl/ton) while TiO2 and Graphene gave the same values (124,126 bbl/ton) respectively.

Investigation Nano coating for Corrosion Protection of Petroleum Pipeline Steel Type A106 Grade B; Theoretical and Practical Study in Iraqi Petroleum Sector

M. J. Kadhim; K. A. Sukkar; A. S. Abbas; N. H. Obaeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 10, Pages 1042-1051

In the present investigation, titania (TiO2) nano-thin films were deposited on steel type A106-B, by using the Pulse Laser Deposition (PLD) technique to obtain passive layers of nano-coating. Electrochemical methods (Tafel completion) are used for study corrosion behavior of steel coating. The A106-B specimens were evaluated in 3.5 wt. % NaCl aqueous solution by using polarization technique with pH adjustment to 4.0 in order to determine the corrosion rate. The samples of TiO2 thin films were characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, and FTIR. The input parameters were substrate temperature (100, 200 and 300) ’0C’, number of pulse (300, 400 and 500) and fluencies energy (800, 900 and 1000) mJ/cm2, have been investigated to detect their impact on corrosion reduction rate using Taguchi methodology orthogonal array and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).The ANOVA results indicates that number of shoots pulse significantly affecting the corrosion rate in PLD technique, which is highest among the contributions of the other parameters which is (58.03%) about three times of the fluencies energy (19.12%).The results show that the TiO2 deposition on steels offers an excellent corrosion resistance about 99 times as compared with uncoated steel. The optimum conditions to minimum values corrosion rate are: temperature of 300ºC, number of laser pulses at 300, and fluencies energy equal to 1000 mJ/cm2. Finally the optimal parameters that was used to predict the conclusions were (98.6) to the response of corrosion rate.

Effect Nano-SiC Additives on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bauxite Refractories Used in Oil Treatment Units

S.A. Zaidan; H. H. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 10, Pages 992-998

Refractory mixtures were prepared from: bauxite raw materials, grog and Kaolin. Different weight percentage of micro-SiC (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) and nano-SiC (2.5,5,7.5 and 10 wt%) was added to bauxite mixture to improve the refractories characteristics to suit the lining of oil treatment units. Semi-dry pressing used to forming cylindrical specimens with load (7 ton) and 25 mm in diameter after mixing the powder with 10 wt% Sodium Silicate as a binder. The specimens dried at (110 oC) for (2 h) and fired at (1400 oC) with soaking time (2 h). During firing process, some of nano-SiC powder oxidants and transformed to SiO2 glass phase with increasing mullite phase. Therefore; the bonds with bauxite increases as a result glass phase generated and lead to decreasing the porosity and increasing the shrinkage, density and mechanical properties compared with micro-SiC additives.

Studying The Effect of Nano-Metakaolin Admixture Material On Mechanical Properties of Oil Well Cement (OWC)

A.D. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 909-913

This work aimed to study the effects of incorporate Nano-metakaolin (NMK) as pozzolonic material on some mechanical properties (compressive strength) of Oil Well Cement (OWC). Nano-metakaolin (NMK) was prepared from Kaolin rock brought by thermal activation of kaolin clay at different temperatures (700–800 oC) for 2 h then crushing and ball milled for (40-60) hours. The cement used in this study comprise of Oil Well Cement class G and NMK were incorporate as a partial replacement additive by NMK of (3%, 6% & 10%) by weight of cement with two different average particle sizes (75nm,100nm) and a w/c of 0.44. Several techniques were used to prepare and characterize NMK Particle Size Analyzers (PSA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The results showed and approved that the NMK was not only work as filler, but also as an activator to consolidate hydration process, through NMK particles react and consumes calcium hydroxide CH crystals to produce more C–S–H, fills pores to increase the strengths, decrease the size of the crystals at the interface zone and transmutes the calcium hydroxide feeble crystals to the C–S–H crystals, and upgrade the interface zone and cement paste domain.

Manufacturing of Bi-functional Nano-sensor of Nobel Metal for Hydrocarbon Gas Detection in Petroleum Sector Using Pulse Laser Deposition Technique

K.A. Sukkar; S.M. Kadhim; A.S. Falih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 864-871

In the present investigation bi-functional nano-gas-sensor was manufactured from two types of metals: ZnO metal oxide and Pt noble metal. The nano-gas-sensors were designed for monitoring and control the environmental pollution in petroleum sector. The preparation technique was carried out by design and construction of a pulse laser deposition unit (PLD) with Nd: YAG laser (λ=532nm, laser fluence 2 J/cm2, repetition rate 6 Hz and the pulse duration 7ns). The target was pure ZnO and Pt:ZnO that containing 4%wt Pt. The hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) was used as Pt source. The PLD films were deposited at three different temperatures 200, 250, and 300oC. Many characterization tests are used to study the influence of temperature on surface morphology of prepared films: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), x-ray Diffraction (XRD) and (UV) visible. The results pointed to a direct relationship between the deposition temperature and the grain sizes of the nanoparticles formed on the substrate. On the other hand, the results of RMS roughness of AFM showed an increased value with increasing of deposition temperature. The best value of RMS roughness was 10.3nm for thin films deposited at 250ºC. The x-ray results shows formation of nanostructure on the substrate at deposition temperature of 250ºC, in which represent high surface area of gas sensor and especially with Pt. In addition, the UV-VIS transmittance measurements have shown that the films are highly transparent in the Visb-NIR wavelength region, with an average transmittance of about 90%. These results pointed to that the manufactured bi-metals nano-gas-sensor (Pt:ZnO) at 250oC is more suitable for LPG hydrocarbons detection application in petroleum positions.

Study the Effect of Nano Ceramic Particles on Some Physical Properties of Acrylic Resins

Q.A. Hamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 124-129

In the present research, study the effect of adding two different types of reinforcing particles, which included: nano-alumina (nano-Al2O3) and nano-silica (nano-SiO2), that added with different volume fractions of (1%, 2% and 3%), on some physical properties of composite prosthesis complete denture base materials by using self (cold) cure poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin as new fluid resin matrix. In this research, the composite prosthetic dentures specimens consist of two groups were prepared by using (Hand Lay-Up) method according to the types of reinforced particles, which includes: the first group consists of PMMA resin reinforced by nano-alumina particles, and the second group consists of PMMA resin reinforced by nano-silica particles. The physical tests were performed on these specimens include (water absorption test and thermal behaviors test). The result of this study showed the values of (thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) properties increased with increasing the volume fraction of both (nano-Al2O3 and nano-SiO2) particles in PMMA complete denture base materials. While, the values of (water absorption and specific heat) properties decreased. In addition, the addition of (nano-Al2O3) particles has a noticeable effect on the all properties of composite material for prosthetic denture base specimens more than the (nano-SiO2) particles.

The Effect of Nanoparticles Additives on Impact Strength of Metal Matrix Composites

N.J. Abdul kader; R.H. Mohammed; M.M. Hanoos

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 37-40

The impact strength of Al6061/SiC metal matrix composites reinforced with nanoparticles of weight percentage (3%, 6%, 9% & 12%) was studied. The composites were fabricated using liquid metallurgy technique. The results revealed that the Al6061/SiC metal matrix composites exhibited better hardness and impact strength than the Al 6061 alloy. Such improvement in the mechanical properties was observed with increasing the weight percentage of SiC nanoparticles and this increase both the hardness and impact strengths of the composites. The impact strength of 12 wt% nano SiCp aluminum composites showed the maximum strength. The effect of the nanoparticles was acted as barriers to dislocation motion. It is seen that the impact energy of the composites increase gradually with filler content increasing from 3 to 12 wt%. SEM were carried out to identify the uniform distribution of nanoparticles in composites.

Effect of Carbon Nanotube on Damping Characteristic of Epoxy Polysulfide Blend Composite

Adnan Neama Abood; Ibtihal. A. Mahmood; Ekhlas Edan Kader

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 73-84

In a Nano-composite structure, it is anticipated that high damping can be achieved by taking advantage of the interfacial friction between the nanotubes and the polymer. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structural damping characteristics of polymeric composites containing Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with various amounts with polysulfide rubber (PSR) . The damping characteristics of the specimens with 0 wt% and 0.6 wt% Carbon nanotube contents were computed experimentally. Through comparing with neat resin specimens (epoxy, epoxy +PSR), the study showed that one can enhance damping by adding CNTs fillers into polymeric resins. Similarly experiment showed that the maximum value of damping ratio was obtained at 0.4 wt% CNTs.

Effect of laser Fluence Energy on Morphological, Structural and Optical Properties of Gold and Silver Thin Films Prepared by Pulse Laser Deposition Method

Maha Al-Kinany; Ghaleb A. Al-Dahash; Jasim Al-Shahban

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 9, Pages 1561-1570

We report the growth and characterization of (Ag, Au) nanoparticles thin films deposition on a glass substrate by pulse laser deposition (PLD) method. The (Ag, Au) thin films prepared through different laser fluence (0.4, 0.6 and 0.7) J/cm2. The effect of laser fluence energy on the morphological, structural and optical properties were studied by XRD, AFM and UV-Visible spectrophotometer.
X-ray diffraction showed nanostructure, with dominated peak at 2θ values 38.3182° corresponding to (111) for silver and peak observed at 2θ values 38.2° which can be indexed to the (111) of face-centered cubic (fcc) structure for Au. Surface topography studied by atomic force microscopy revealed narrowed size distributions, with grain sizes ranging from 21.81 to 37.06 nm for Ag, and grain sizes ranging from 12.63 to 15.01nm for Au thin films. The results showed the Average gran Size increased with increasing laser fluence energy and RMS roughness increased with increasing laser fluence energy. Optical properties measurements showed that(Ag, Au) thin films have two peak the first one related with interband transitions, and the second peak formation of a surface plasmon peak (SPR). Optical properties measurements showed transformation from metallic properties of bulk (Ag, Au) to semiconductor properties when formed by sort of nanostructure evidenced by the formation of optical energy gap about (0.8, 0.7 and 0.5) eV when laser fluence increased (0.4, 0.6 and 0.7) J/cm2 respectively for Ag thin films. when grain size become smaller the optical energy gap increased. Optical energy gap(Eg) decreased (1.4, 1.2 and 0.8) eV when laser fluence increased (0.4, 0.6 and 0.7) J/cm2 respectively for Au thin films.

Investigate and Comparison Effect add Amorphous and Crystalline - Nano SiO2 on Properties of Concrete

Rami Joseph Aghajan Sldozian

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 547-555

In this paper, the study included the comparison between amorphous silica and crystalline silica (quartz), and with nano scale size, two types of silicawere added to concrete by ratios (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) as a replacement by the weight of cement. Destructive and non-destructive tests wereconducted on the specimens, the results show in destructive test the compressive and tensile strength increase in 15%wt addition ratio in both types of silica, but in amorphous silica was high than in quartz.The results of non-destructive tests show in (Schmidt Hammer) the 15% ratio in both kinds of silica show high hardness than other ratios. Ultra sonic (pules velocity) test, noted the better quality was in 15% ratio in amorphous silica and also show fastest pules velocity.

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium Ferrite Materials

Sabah Mohammed Ali Ridha; Ghead Khalaf Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 980-989

NiZnMg-Ferrite Nano ceramics were prepared by using sol-gel auto combustion method, these ferrites then pelletized and sintered at different temperatures (1000, 1100 and 1200 0C). Ferrite samples showed spinel structure and inherent ‎properties of high electrical resistivity, low electrical losses and high theoretical ‎densities. Therefore, these ferrites have a potential candidate for high frequency applications. The electrical and structural ‎properties of Ni0.7-yZn0.3MgyFe2O4 (where; y= 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were studied and that shows an effect of chemical composition ‎on the electrical, structural, and physical properties depending on Mg content in the Ferrite. Chemical phase analysis carried out by x-ray diffraction spectrum ‎confirms the formation of ferrite Nanopowders with size (22.6 nm), and found that the lattice parameters and particle sizes increase, while theoretical density and porosity ‎decreases with increasing of Mg content in the NiZnMg Ferrites. Resistivity of all samples has been measured at temperatures in the range of ‎‎ (300-540 K), which decreases with increasing of temperatures like ‎a semiconductor behavior.

Properties of Nano Thin Film Composed of Nan Crystalline Zro2 Prepared by (SOL - GEL) Method

Kassim Mohammed Sahan; Aqel Mashot Jafar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 23-32

Nano-crystalline ZrO2 was prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on glass substrate by dip-coating technique method in the room temperature. ZrOCl2 was dissolved in a solvent mixture composed of H2O2 and ammonia. The dissolving reaction produced a colorless, transparent peroxozirconium complex solution. The mean nanocrystalline size was about 7.55 nm. The zirconium film thus obtained was transparent 90% with 5.03 eV band gap. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and (UV-Vis) used to determine the properties of the thin film. The as-deposited thin film was of high purity of ZrO2 and good adhesion to the substrate. The annealing was caused crystallization of tetragonal and monoclinic phase present in the zirconia at 550°C in air. The film showed very flat surfaces consisting of nanoparticles with particle size of ranging (2-10 nm).

Effects of Nano-Fluids Types, Volume Fraction of Nano-Particles, and Aspect Ratios on Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Right- Angle Triangular Enclosure

Israa Y. Daood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 16, Pages 5365-5388

This study investigates natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow
characteristic of water based nano-fluids in a right-angle triangular enclosure, where the left vertical wall is insulated, the right inclined wall is cooled, and the horizontal wall is heated by spatially varying temperature. Governing equations are solved using treamvorticity
formulation in curvilinear coordinates. Streamlines, isotherms, local and average Nusselt number, moreover to NUR factor are used to present the corresponding flow and thermal fields inside the triangular enclosure. Calculation were performed for three aspect ratio of enclosure geometry (AR=0.5, 1, 2), solid volume fractions of nanoparticles ranging from PHI=0, to 4%, and Rayleigh number varying from 104 to 106. Three types of nano-particles are taken into consideration: Cu, Al 2O3, and TiO2. The results show that, the average heat transfer rate increases significantly as particle volume
fraction and Rayleigh number increase. Also, the type of nano-fluid is a key factor for heat transfer enhancement where the high values are obtained when using Cu, TiO2, and Al2O3 nano-particles respectively. Finally, it is observed that the aspect ratio of the enclosure is one of the most important on flow and heat transfer. Increasing the AR leads
that to increase the flow strength and heat transfer rate.