Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : wastewater treatment

Characterization of the Efficiency of Photo-Catalytic Ultrafiltation PES Membrane Modified with Tungsten Oxide in the Removal of Tinzaparin Sodium

Reham R. Abdullah; Kadhum M. Shabeeb; Aseel B. Alzubaydi; Alberto Figoli; Alessandra Criscuoli; Enrico Drioli; Qusay Alsalhy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 12, Pages 1633-1641
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.134070.1219

One of the polymeric membranes' main limitations is their susceptibility to fouling, lowering the membrane's performance with time. Therefore, incorporating nanomaterials in polymer matrices has attracted great attention in wastewater treatment applications. It's a promising approach for enhancing membrane hydrophilicity and performance.  Herein, ultrafiltration nanocomposite membranes were synthesized by applying the phase inversion method through immobilizing (0.1-0.4 wt.%) tungsten oxide (WO2.89) nanoparticles in a polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. Membrane's anti-fouling performance was evaluated against tinzaparin sodium. The data showed that the pure water flux improved with increasing nanoparticle loading, reaching its optimum value of 54.9 kg/m2 h at 0.4 wt.% WO2.89 nanoparticles compared to the neat membrane's 30.42 kg/m2 h. The results also demonstrated that the rejection efficiency and flux recovery ratio (FRR) against tinzaparin sodium was enhanced, by 44.89% and 12.69%, respectively, for the membranes modified with 0.4wt.% WO2.89 nanoparticles loading compared to the neat PES membrane. The data also showed that after exposing the nanocomposite membranes to UV light irradiation (λ=365 nm) and intensity (1200mW/cm2) for 1h, a further enhancement by 8.34% in FRR as compared to the membranes with the same percentage of nanoparticles loading without irradiation. It is concluded that the photocatalytic activity of WO2.89 nanoparticles in the decomposition of organic molecules on/close to the membrane surface was the impact that caused this improvement in membrane anti-fouling property

The permeation and Separation Characteristics of Polymeric Membranes Incorporated with Nanoparticles for Dye Removal and Interaction Mechanisms between Polymer and Nanoparticles: A Mini Review

Dalya D. Al-Araji; Faris H. Al-Ani; Qusay F. Alsalhy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 11, Pages 1399-1411
DOI: 10.30684/etj.2022.132572.1129

Dyes are an essential group of organic pollutants with a long history of harming aquatic life and humans. Prior to disposal, polluted dye wastewater must be adequately treated to prevent adverse impacts on persons and the environment. Although there are several techniques for dye removal, most of them share a similar drawback: they generate secondary pollution to the environment. Membrane separation is highlighted in this article because it is one of the most efficient dye removal techniques available nowadays due to its high removal capacity, ease of operation, and clean water generation. Polymeric membranes are frequently used in membrane-based separations because of their greater flexibility, ease of pore formation process, and lower cost than other membrane materials. Although polymeric membranes are preferable materials for membrane production, they are usually hydrophobic and, hence, sensitive to fouling. Therefore, much research has been done to modify the polymeric membrane. More recently, metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been introduced to the polymer matrix to minimize fouling potential and enhance membrane performance. This study describes several polymeric membranes utilized in dye separation that have been modified using nanomaterial. Also, the study illustrates how adding these components affects the membranes' performance in rejecting the dye.Additionally, it highlights the importance of membrane-nanomaterial interactions and the effect of these materials' additions on membrane performance over time.

The Use of Inexpensive Sorbents to Remove Dyes from Wastewater - A Review

Firas Sh. Ahmed; Adnan A. Abdul Razak; May A. Muslim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 498-515
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2281

Dyes are utilized in various industrial applications, and some businesses' effluents include hazardous dyes. Humans, aquatic creatures, and the environment are all harmed by dyes. As a result, adequately treated dyes that manage wastewater must be before being discharged into nearby bodies of water. Adsorption has proven to be high and cost-effective in removing dyes from wastewater. The sorbent material for dye removal from industrial effluent is activated carbon, but its high cost limits massive-scale utilization. The use of cost-effective adsorbents for wastewater discharge dye elimination is discussed and analyzed in this paper. This review underlines and displays a preview of these IASs, including natural, industrial, and made-up materiality/wastes and their utilization in removing dyes. Experiments have shown that various inexpensive non-traditional adsorbents lead to effective dye removal. Accordingly, studies dealing with the search for effective and affordable sources from current resources are becoming increasingly crucial for eliminating dye. The excess desire for functional and affordable processing modes and adsorption significance has led to inexpensive alternative sorbents (IASs). The isotherm analysis and adsorption kinetics indicate that Langmuir / Freundlich, besides the pseudo-second-order model, is the most used pattern for convenient empirical adsorption datum. Low-cost by-products from the agricultural, residential, and industrial sectors have been identified as viable wastewater treatment alternatives. They make it possible to remove contaminants from wastewater while also contributing to waste minimization, recovery, and reuse. This review revealed that some IASs, have ratable adsorption capabilities and rapid kinetics, besides having vastly available.

Chemical Precipitation method for Sulphate Removal from Treated Wastewater of Al-Doura Refinery

Aumar Alnakeeb; Rana Mohammed Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 3A, Pages 338-354
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i3A.503

Wastewater treatment by Wastewater Treatment Plant, named (INGECO) in Doura refinery suffers from the elevated level of sulphate ion concentrations compared to the recommended EPA [14] specified (250 mg/L). The annual rate, maximum and peak sulphate concentrations that found to be 360; 425 and 550 mg/L respectively. In this study samples prepared from industrial wastewater and the average, maximum and peak sulphate concentrations to be used in chemical precipitation process by using BaCl2 or Al(OH)3. Results obtained from BaCl2 treatment refer to the optimum (dosage, mixing time and mixing speed) to be used in sulphate removal for reuse purpose were (1.5 g/L, 1.2 hr and 80 rpm), (2.25 g/L, 1.5 hr and 90 rpm) and (3.0 g/L, 2 hr and 90 rpm) for each of average, maximum and peak concentrations respectively. Whereas for disposal purpose, were (0.36 g/L, 15 min and 100 rpm), (1.1 g/L, 15 min and 70 rpm), (1.72 g/L, 15 min and 90 rpm) respectively. This process was achieving of highly sulphate removal, but expensive. Whereas the results obtained by using Al(OH)3 indicated unsuitability for treated refinery wastewater treatment of low sulphate concentrations and neutral pH.

Removal of high concentration phenol from aqueous solutions by electrochemical technique

Shaimaa T. Alnasrawy; Ghayda Y. Alkindi; Talib M. Albayati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 2A, Pages 189-195
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i2A.1705

In this study, the ability of the electrochemical process to remove aqueous high concentration phenol using an electrochemical cell with aluminum anode and cathode was examined. The removal rate of phenol was monitored using different parameters phenol concentration, pH, electrolysis time, current density, and electrode distance. Obtained results indicated that the low removal rates of phenol were observed at both low and high pH. However, the removal rate of phenol increased with an increase in the current density, each electrochemical process conditions need a certain electrodes distance. removal rate of phenol decreased with the increase in the initial phenol concentration. The maximum removal rate of phenol obtained from this study was 82%.

A Review on Microbial Fuel Cells

Baidaa A. Kitafa; Afaf J. Obaid Al-saned

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 1A, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i1A.1518

The Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is a bioreactor with which the chemical energy in chemical bonds of organic compounds are converted to electricity under anaerobic conditions through catalytic reactions of micro-organisms. It has been familiar for a long time that electricity can be generated directly through using bacteria to break organic matter. A microbial fuel cell can also serve in different wastewater treatment to destroy organic matter. The development of MFC technology requires a greater understanding of the microbial processes for MFCs, and their components, limitations, factors and design this system, to be simpler and large scale system developed; so that it would increase electricity production while being cost-effective. This review discusses, what is the MFCs and the basic principle of how MFC operate, the most essential MFC components and their relevance, multiple MFC designs that have been presented as efficient configurations, Applications of MFCs, and several types of wastewater as substrates in MFC also highlighted.

Effect of Operating Parameters on Degradation of Eriochrome black T Dye

Walaa Sabre; Sheymaa A. Mohammed; Ahmed H. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 163-167
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.26

Of the effect, the process parameters on photocatalytic degradation Eriochrome black T( EBT) dye has been degraded in a batch reactor under UV light in heterogeneous slurry utilizing various concentrations of two semiconductors commercial catalysts (Titanium dioxide and Zinc Oxide). The parameter has been studied (catalyst type, catalyst concentration, pH of dye solution and initial dye concentration). The results showed that the best dose of TiO2 and ZnO are 1.5 and 1 g/l respectively and the optimum pH (6 and 11) using TiO2 and ZnO respectively. Moreover, the comparative assessment of the photocatalytic efficiency was made for different photocatalytic powder. It was noticed that the best photocatalytic efficiency as ZnO > TiO2 . The investigational results were also assessed in expressions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color reductions to study treatment efficiency. Maximum COD removed was observed to be around 95%. The decolorization and the oxidation efficiencies could achieve 95% and 88% for ZnO and TiO2 respectively at the optimum conditions for both catalysts (30 ppm Eriochrome black T dye solution).

The Performance of Oxidation Pond for Wastewater Treatment in Rural Areas a Case Study “Al-Dewaniyah Province"

Mohammed Ali I.Al-Hashimi; HayderTaleeHussan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 4, Pages 1053-1070
DOI: 10.30684/etj.32.4A.18

This research is concerned with study and checks the suitability of waste oxidation ponds (WOP) for treating wastewater in Al-Dewaniyah province by taking a sample of community of 10000 populations.
Experimental work had three cases depending on many considerations such as economical and specification of final effluent. A model of two ponds (facultative and aerobic) in series was used as first case of experimental work. Then third pond with aeration process to aerobic pond were added to the series as second case to improve the effluent. At last, sand filter was used to polish the final effluent from aerobic pond.
The three ponds had the same surface area (5.75m*2m) but with different depths, where it was 2m for anaerobic pond, 1.5m for facultative pond and 0.75m for aerobic pond. From the tests taken for the three cases, the results obtained for the last two cases were much better when compared with first case. In the experimental work a sand filter used for algae removal. Sand filter contributed in improving final effluent by decreasing total suspended solid (TSS) also in increasing removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).At the end, the results of this work could be an invitation to use waste oxidation pond for wastewater treatment in rural areas or even small communities in Iraq but it may need more examinations to get best results.

Influence of Operating Conditions on Adsorption of Lead (II) Ions From Contaminated Water Using Different Adsorbents

Areej Dalf Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 6, Pages 991-1000
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.6.6

Removal of heavy metals from water and wastewater has received a great deal of attention. Adsorption is one of the most technologies being used for treatment of polluted water. This study records lab scale experiments to test efficiency of activated carbon as an adsorbent and comparing it with low-cost naturally occurring materials (sand & egg shells) in removing lead ions from wastewater. The adsorption of lead ions from solutions containing different initial lead concentrations (100, 150 and 200 ppm pb as lead nitrate) using different particle
size (140, 300 and 500 ìm) and different doses of activated carbon, sand and egg shells at different pH (4, 7 and 10) was examined. Also the metal concentration retained in the adsorbent phase (mg/g) was calculated. This method of heavy metals removal proved highly effective as removal efficiency increased with increasing adsorbent dose while it decreased with increasing metals concentration. The results revealed that of the studied adsorbents, the activated carbon showed
the highest adsorption capacity and the maximum adsorption can be obtained by using particle size of 140 ìm in neutral media (pH 7). This technique might be successfully used for the removal of lead ions from liquid industrial wastes and wastewater.

Effect of Using Local Sand Filter on Increasing Efficiency of Treatment Wastewater in Iraq

Suhair Mohammed Hassan Yaseen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3130-3140
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.15.8

Sand filtration has been an effective wastewater treatment process for control of contaminates. Sand filters are very economic treatment and do not need constant operator attention, making them an appropriate technology for wastewater systems either they are big or small. Iraq has combined wastewater systems (domestic and storm) water, old treatment plants with very determinate characteristics of influent
(suspended solids S.S equal to 350 mg/L), increasing population and absence of industrial water treatment units; all these conditions lead to problems of overflow, bypass wastewater and effluent which have characteristics under what are required. The results of this paper demonstrate that 76% removal efficiency (R.E) for S.S.
can be achieved by using sand filtration technique. The best position of sand filter is in 2nd stage (pretreatment) because of the
highest R.E of S.S. High possibility to contaminate filter in 1st because of oils and floating materials makes this position not good in spite of high R.E. As a result of this position, effluent will be very low contaminate (s.s reaches 5-10 ppm). In oppose to ordinary effluent which has 69 ppm of s.s ( according to international
environmental standards , effluent's s.s should be 35 ppm or less and according to Iraq E.S effluent's s.s should be 60 ppm or less ) .No desirable change in s.s concentration Is noticed with different sand thickness. Sand filtration appears unexpectable ability (approximately 50%) to remove iron and toxic cadmium.

A Study on The Effect Of Temperature on The Treatment of Industrial Wastewater Using Chlorella Vulgaris Alga

Rana Abbas Azeez

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 785-792
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.4.13

Laboratory experiments were performed to study nutrient uptake by the
unicellular green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris ) grown in batch system uses Al-
Asady Factory for Seeds and Animal Feed (Mahmodia/Iraq) industrial wastewater
as culture media .The initial concentration of C.vulgaris was 1*10 6 cells/ml with
48 hrs of incubation in wastewater at different temperatures ranges (20-35)°C
where changes in COD, BOD, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration in
the effluent were calculated.
The results show that the removal efficiencies of COD ,BOD ,nitrogen and
phosphorus are 88%, 89%,92% and 89% respectively. The optimum temperature
at which highest removal efficiencies were obtained was 30°C.

Simple Treatment Of Textile Industry Wastewater For Reuse And Recycling

M. Sh. J. Al-Muhamadawi; M. A. Zablouk; Mahmood M. Barbooti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 2072-2084
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.10.13

The aim of the present work is at describing a simple physico-chemical
treatment for the textile wastewater of a local plant to bring its characteristics to
that used within the plant. Lime and polyelectrolyte were employed individually to
aid the removal of pollutants. The effectiveness of the treatment was indicated by
measuring parameters like biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, turbidity, electrical
conductivity, EC, total suspended solids, TSS, total dissolved solid, TDS, for the
produced water after filtration through simple sand filter. The treatment was
supported by an extensive study of the coagulation/flocculation and filtration
processes. Color dyes adsorb efficiently onto the coagulant particles and separates
from the original liquor. Pollutants removal efficiency (Turbidity, TSS, TDS, and
color), by (87-90%, 81-85%, 30-32% 40-45%) respectively could be obtained by
using lime solution of concentration 35-40 mg/L without addition of cationic
polyelectrolyte. Increasing lime concentration results in some difficulties like high
pH value of water discharged, dewatering problems and sand filter clogging.