Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Crude Oil

An Overview on Most Effective DRAs in Crude Oil Pipelines

Raheeq I. Ibrahim; Manal K. Odah; Dhoha A. Shafeeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 10A, Pages 391-397
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.10A.2

The flow of crude oil in pipelines suffers from a problem of fluid flow pressure drop and high-energy consumption for pumping especially in low temperatures environment. Flow can be enhanced using viscosity either reduction or drag reduction techniques. Drag reduction is considered as the most effective and most applicable method. The technique contributes in reducing the frictional energy losses during the flow by addition of little doses of materials knowing as drag-reducing agents. The present work focuses on more recent and most applicable drag-reducing agents used in crude oil flow enhancement via pipelines.

Application of Microwave Heating in the Demulsification of Crude Oil Emulsions

Firdos M. Abdulla; Mohammed R. Ali; Jenan A. AL-Najar; Nedhal A. Shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 79-83
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.12

In recent times the formation of pre-processing water-in-crude emulsions in petroleum industries has led to some inherent challenges such as the reduction in the efficiency of oil recovery, high cost of operation and corrosion in pipes. Traditional ways of pulverizing the emulsions using heat and chemical approaches have many disadvantageous from both economic and environmental points of view. Microwave irradiation is an efficient method for the demulsification of the water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion, encountered in refinery industries. The microwave technology is a costeffective way of emulsifying water-in-crude-oil emulsion. Two methods were used for conducting the demulsification performance test, i.e. chemical and microwave. The method of chemical demulsification using octylamine was found to be the best water separation efficiency achieved at 2.5 vol.% Octylamine with (35-65%) W/O emulsion, the separation touched to 90% within 3 days and the greatest oil separation efficiency attained at 2.5 vol.% Octylamine at the same ratio of W/O emulsion, the separation reached 91% within 3 days. The demulsification process efficiency increased by microwave, where the water separation rate reached to (100%) at 4 minutes with (35-65%) W/O emulsion. Light crude oils were used. The fundamental principles of formation, formulation and breaking of O/W emulsions in the microwave heating process were adequately elucidated using some physicochemical characterization techniques This further helps in the development of a cost-effective method of demulsifying the W/O emulsion. Water-in-crude oil emulsions of volume percentage ranges, i.e. (25-75%) and (35-65%) were adopted.

Treatment of Crude Oil Spills in Water Resources by Using Biological Method

Ibtihaj A. Abdulrazzak; Mohammed H. Hafiz; Ali N. Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 120-125
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.19

Biological treatment has definite to be an effective and excellent method for the removal of aquatic oil spills. It is competent of being used as the best treatment method for cleanup of oil spills. Being a potential technology, significant work needs to be done to improve the capabilities of bioremediation for oil contaminated-aquatic environment. Novel application of combined solvent extraction and two-phase biodegradation processes using Two-Liquid Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TLPPB) technique was proposed and developed to enhance the cleanup of high concentration of crude oil from aqueous phase using acclimated mixed consortiums in an anaerobic environment. Silicone oil was used as the organic extractive phase for being a water-immiscible, biocompatible and non-biodegradable. An application of one phase bioreactor was used, then “TLPPB” two-liquid phase partitioning bioreactor was sophisticated to decay hydrocarbons “crude oil” in this study) at concentration reach to 6000 mg/L. As the organic phase, Silicon oil was selected in TLPPB technique to hold the delivery of hydrocarbons in a liquid layer by absorbing method and after that transforming the pollution to the biological microorganisms. Based on TLPPB technique, the effectiveness of the organic layer “silicon oil” has been contrasted to the one-phase biological reactor. Then the result is completely treated of hydrocarbons pollutant to 100% was accomplished in the two-liquid phase partitioning bioreactor “TLPPB” contrasted to 69-78% treated efficiency of crude oil in the one-phase traditional biological reactor. Thus, the interpretation of “TLPPB” technique for crude oil treatment was estimated in terms of the salinity influence by using Tigris river water, and sea water samples. The rising rate of salinity in liquid layer causing reduction the microorganisms-activity and prohibit the amount of crude oil decay. Thus, this research mentions the possibility of TLPPB technique for consolidate transmission and the biodegradation of immiscible crude oil.

Reducing Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon from Soil Polluted with Iraqi Crude Oil by Phytoremediation Technology

Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Sara M. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 19-21
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.4

They used anew-green technology phytoremediation to reduce and remove pollutants from the soil. The purpose of the current research study was to survey the effect of soil pollution with a variety of doses of crude oil on the generation and growth of the plants. The study was made for 120 days from March to June in a control condition in the greenhouse and laboratory. Unpolluted soil near the Tigris River was taken and be polluted with varied doses of crude oil. They used alfalfa, Cotton and Grass in this research to reduce pollution. It made a comparison between the results of the three plants species to choose the best plant for total petroleum hydrocarbons removal from the soil. Grass plant gave the greatest result in total petroleum hydrocarbons removal, which gave up to 50.66% for Treatment 4, and cotton came in second place with 49.82% removal rate in treatment 2. Alfalfa came at the end with a removal rate of 31.78% for treatment 2 of the crude oil.

CFD investigation of the erosion severity in 3D flow elbow during crude Oil contaminated sand transportation

M.A. Al-Baghdadi; K. K. Resan; M. Al-Waily

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 930-935
DOI: 10.30684/etj.35.9A.10

During upstream petroleum production operations, crude oil and sand eroded from formation zones are often transported as a mixture through pipes up to the well heads and between well heads and flow stations. The sand particles are carried by the flow momentum in streamlines that impinge the pipe walls, in particular at the elbows, resulting in seriously erosive damages. This can lead to a disastrous and costly failure in the system. Therefore, computing of erosion rate during the system operation is indispensable for predicting any potential failure in advance, and hence avoid it. Among all the fittings employed in piping systems, elbows are the most likely subjected to erosion resulting from sand particles carried with oil, where those particles deviate from the mainstream and impact the walls while passing through the bended section of elbows. To reduce the erosive damage produced by the solid particles, a numerical simulation based erosion prediction model has been employed to compute the relative erosion severity. In this study ,the potentials required to simulate the current problem comprehensively, various physical aspects have been combined together including flow turbulence, particle tracking, and erosion simulation. In addition to the comprehensive insights offered by the computational simulation of crude oil flow, high costs along with tedious efforts required for traditional experimentations can be avoided. The current analysis offers priceless physical insight towards serve this model as an alternative sand management tool, and can be used to quantify oil recovery. Furthermore, it can identify limiting steps and components; form a computer-aided tool for designing and optimizing the future pipe systems in order to enhance their lifetime through improving their erosion resistance, which is definitely will save considerable amount of time and cost.

The Effect of Different Operating Parameters on the Corrosion Rate of Carbon Steel in Petroleum Fractions

Nagham Salman Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 1182-1193
DOI: 10.30684/etj.31.6A12

The corrosion in petroleum pipelines was investigated by the studying the corrosion of carbon steel in crude oil and refined petroleum products which include gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil. Weight loss method was used in which test specimens of carbon steel, with a known weights, were immersed in the test media for a total exposure time of 60 days. The weight loss was measured at an interval of 10 days and the corrosion rate was determined. The results showed that corrosion rate are highest for gasoline followed by kerosene, gas oil and crude oil, in a decreasing order. The observed pattern in the corrosion behavior is consistent with the density and weight percent of hydrogen in the hydrocarbon products. The corrosion rate increases with decreasing density and increasing weight percent of hydrogen. Experiments were carried out at different temperatures (30, 60, 90 and 120oC) at a constant partial pressure of CO2 (50psi) in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results indicated that as partial pressure of CO2 and temperature increase, corrosion rate increases due to due to continuous dissolution of iron ion and formation of weak carbonic acid. The weak carbonic acid dissociates into carbonate and hydrogen ion, which increases the cathodic reaction on the metal surface.The presence of small amount of H2S (0.4 ppm) increases the corrosion rate significantly.

Effect of Crude Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow on Pump Performance

Banipal N. Yaqob; Ihsan F. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1766-1774

An experimental study of pump performance (i.e. head, discharge, power, etc.) was achieved by using a centrifugal pump with crude oil-water two-phase flow. The crude oil used was from Sherao oil field in Kirkuk (Iraq) with a density of 838 kg/m3, dynamic viscosity of 6.0 cP and surface tension of 0.027 N/m at a temperature of 25oC. A centrifugal pump was used with straight impeller and one suction line and one
discharge line. The results show that the pump head and the discharge of two-phase flow decrease as oil volume fraction increased, and the power of the pump increase as oil volume fraction increased