Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : soil

Reducing Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon from Soil Polluted with Iraqi Crude Oil by Phytoremediation Technology

Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Riyad H. Al-Anbari; Sara M. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 19-21
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.4

They used anew-green technology phytoremediation to reduce and remove pollutants from the soil. The purpose of the current research study was to survey the effect of soil pollution with a variety of doses of crude oil on the generation and growth of the plants. The study was made for 120 days from March to June in a control condition in the greenhouse and laboratory. Unpolluted soil near the Tigris River was taken and be polluted with varied doses of crude oil. They used alfalfa, Cotton and Grass in this research to reduce pollution. It made a comparison between the results of the three plants species to choose the best plant for total petroleum hydrocarbons removal from the soil. Grass plant gave the greatest result in total petroleum hydrocarbons removal, which gave up to 50.66% for Treatment 4, and cotton came in second place with 49.82% removal rate in treatment 2. Alfalfa came at the end with a removal rate of 31.78% for treatment 2 of the crude oil.

Determination of Radon Concentrations in Soil Around Al-Tuwaitha Site Using CR-39 Detector

Khalid Mahdi; Auday T. Subhi; Najlaa R. Sharif; Ghuzlan S. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2018, Volume 36, Issue 2C, Pages 108-112
DOI: 10.30684/etj.36.2C.2

In this work radon concentration in 37 soil samples collected from 17 regions surround the (Al Tuwaitha) were measured by using solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD.s) CR-39 with natural exposure of one month, and by comparison with standard samples. The radon concentration in the soil samples was about (9.583 ± 0.369
28.029 ± 0.631) Bq/m3 in locations one (Rotate Salman) and eight (An area agricultural near high-voltage towers) respectively, with rate of (20.939 ± 0.541) Bq/m3. The specific activity of radium (Ra) dissolved during generate radon were ranging between (9.857 – 3.37), with rate of (7.393), surface emission of radon gas rate in the soil was found between (0.144 – 0.422 Bq/m2.h) with rate of (0.314 Bq/m2.h) and their mass emission of radon gas rate has the highest value of (0.016 Bq / kg . h) and lower value (0.005 Bq / kg . h) with rate of (0.012 Bq / kg . h. These results are within the acceptable limit
that recorded by UNECEAR and ICRP.

Phytoremediation of Cr and Pb from Soil Irrigated by Wastewater

Riyad Al-Anbari; Abdul Hameed M.J. Al-Obaidy; Tiba J. Al-Imari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 13, Pages 2380-2386

In order to evaluate the effect of agricultural crops, such as kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.), corn (Zea Mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the removal of Cr and Pb from soil irrigated with wastewater, an experimental pot was conducted at Green House of University of Technology. Three levels of water were used for irrigation included tap water (control) (T1), 50% of wastewater+50% of tap water (50%WW) (T2) and 100% wastewater (100%WW) (T3). The obtained results, indicated that kenaf, and barley have been an effective plant in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiency. Maximum values of removal efficiency were recorded in August 2015 for the (100%WW) and found 85.59%, 82.77, 93.27% of Pb and 85.67, 93.85, 87.24% of Cr for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. Minimum removal efficiencies recorded at (50%WW) treatment for Pb were (5.66, 4.48, 0.99% ) and at control treatment for Cr were ( 0.99, 1.51, 2.37%) for Cr in May 2015 for corn, kenaf and barley, respectively. From the results obtained, kenaf, and barley were effective in removal of Cr and Pb due to its high removal efficiencies.

Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analysis of Buildings Considering Soil Structure Interaction

Ola A. Hussein; Mohammed J. Hamood; Ahamed F. Khadum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 9, Pages 1755-1766

An attempt has been made during the present study to understand the behavior of reinforced concrete structures considering soil structure interaction. A multistoried frame building subjected to seismic forces are modeled and analyzed through the finite elements software program (SAP 2000 V14) which are primarily designed according to ACI 318M-11) and ASCE 7-10 Code. Both static and dynamic analysis methods are used, which may be linear and nonlinear. Recorded ground motions are used in nonlinear dynamic (time history) analysis. Analyses of frames are carried out to find the lateral displacements, drift ratios, and time period of free vibration motion of structural systems. The study reveals that soil flexibility has significant effect on the response of structures. Soil flexibility led to increase the storey drift and lateral displacement. In addition, it led to increase in neutral lateral time period of structure vibration of frame buildings especially, with soft soil stiffness. The present study also, presents a methodology to protect the structure against earthquake excitation by using rubber isolators, where decreases in the natural frequency of structure building have been observed and the presence of rubber at a location of each column led to decrease the value of axial force and shear base stress as compared with fixed-base case.

Radon Gas Concentrations in Soil and Radon Exhalation Rates in Thiqar City

Mahmood S. Karim; Hazim L. Mansour; Nada F. Tawfiq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 434-443

First part to determination concentrations of Rn-222 in surface samples of soil, the highest average concentration of Rn-222 was found in AL-Refai region was equal to (127.500±2 Bq/m3), while lowest the average was found in AL-Aekeckh region which was equal to (33.750±2.2 Bq/m3), with an average value of (75.875±21.8 Bq/m3) ,while the (RER) was found to be ranged from (36.821 mBq/m2h) (T19 region) to (139.103 mBq/m2h) (T1 region), with average value (82.780±18.6 mBq/m2h), second part to determine of concentration of Rn-222 in samples of soil from depth 10 cm , the highest average concentration of radon in AL-Refai region which was equal to (109.500±7.7 Bq/m3), while the lowest average concentration of Rn-222 gas was found in AL-Aekeckh region equal to (30.250±2.9 Bq/m3), with an average value (66.703±14.8 Bq/m3), while (RER) was found to be ranged from (33.003 mBq/m2h) (T19 region) to (119.465 mBq/m2h) (T1 region) ,with value of average (72.784±16.2 mBq/m2h).The concentration of Rn-222 in surface soil and at depth (10 cm) were less than the recommended value given (ICRP, 1993).

Measurement of Uranium concentrations in soil samples for selected regions in Thi-Qar governorate by using (CR-39) nuclear track detector

Hazim Louis Mansour; Nada Fathil Tawfiq; Mahmood Salim Kari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 6, Pages 1127-1133

The present work is concerned with the measurements of uraniumconcentrations in twenty surface soil samples from selected locations (some of them were measured for the first time as far as authors know) in Thi-Qargovernorate by using uranium fission fragmentU-235 (n-f), obtained by the bombardment of U-235 with thermal neutrons. The results have shown that, the highest uranium concentration in surface soil samples in the selected regions in Thi-Qargovernorate was found in T1 (AL-Refai) region , which was equal to (2.896 ppm), while the lowest uranium concentration was found in T18 (Garmat Beni Saeed) region which was equal to (0.779 ppm), with an average value of (2.077±0.4 ppm). The present results have show that the uranium concentrations in the studied surface soil samples were less than the allowed value (11.7 ppm) recommended by (UNSCEAR, 1993).

A Study of the Behavior of Shell Footings using Finite Element Analysis

Adel A. Al-Azzawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 19, Pages 90-102

In this research, the conical shell foundation is investigated. The two components of the interacting system; the soil and the shell foundation, are modelled using the finite element method. In this study, 15-node isoparametric triangular axisymmetric elements with two degrees of freedom at each node are used to model the shell and soil. The soil-structure interaction between the footing and the supporting medium are modelled using interface elements. Comparison between the results obtained by the present analysis and those obtained by other investigations are made. The present analysis shows satisfactory results when compared with those obtained by other studies with largest percentage difference of 14% in the value of the ultimate load. Parametric studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of some important parameters on the behaviour of shell foundations. Three parameters are considered which are: semi-vertical angle, footing embedment and edge beam.

A Comparative Study between Piled-Raft and Two Soil Improvement Techniques

Maki Jafar M. Al-Waily; Ala; a Ali S. Al-Ta; Suad Mohammed H. Al-Janabi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 20, Pages 409-421

This investigational study was directed to establish the correlation between piled raft foundation and two soil improvement techniques, stone columns and lime columns to evaluate the bearing improvement ratio BCR for the soft clay soil with three values of undrained shear strength, 8 kPa,10 kPa and 12 kPa. The 12 model tests was conducted in the present work, three models of untreated soil, three models of soil with piled raft, three models of soil treated with stone columns and three models of soil treated with lime columns. The container used in experimental works was made of steel with plane area of 500 mm * 500 mm and 500mm in height. The thickness of soil sample inside the container was 400 mm.
The study showed that the piled raft was more efficient in the bearing capacity improvement than the two soil improvement techniques. The bearing improvement ratio were 3.39, 3.27 and 2.78 in the three model tests of piled-raft for three samples of soil, respectively, while the lime columns provided the lowest values of the bearing improvement ratio were 1.64, 1.67 and 1.8 respectively.

Studying some of the Geotechnical Properties of Stabilized Iraqi Clayey Soils

Ishraq Khudhair Abass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 1117-1130

In many road construction projects, if weak soils exist, stabilization and improvement of their properties is necessary. The stabilization process aims at increasing the soil strength and reducing its permeability and compressibility. An experimental program was undertaken to study the effect of engineering properties of kaolin clayey soils ((the kaolin was supplied by the General Company of Geological Survey and Mining which originally obtains from Al-Dewiekhla near Aukashat district in the west of Iraq)) when blended with lime (L) and Silica Fume (SF). A series of laboratory experiments have been implemented for varieties of samples: 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0% for (Lime) and 2.0%, 4.0% and 6.0% for(Silica Fume). These experiments are: consistency limits test, specific gravity test, compaction test, unconfined compression test and California bearing ratio test. For each test, the optimal quantity of Lime (L) and the optimal percentage of Lime Silica Fume (LSF) combination were determined. The results revealed that: the optimal percentage of LSF combination was attained at a (2.5%L+6.0%SF), which served as control in this study. This optimal percentage: decrease the liquid limit, plasticity index, specific gravity and maximum dry density; and raise the optimum moisture content, unconfined compressive strength and California bearing ratio. These results showed also, that the combination of LSF stabilization at (2.5% L+6.0% SF) is better than the optimal one which achieved by Lime alone: 2.5%L for plasticity index, 10.0%L for specific gravity, maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, 5.0%L for unconfined compression stress and 7.5%forCaliforniabearingratio. All of these results indicated that the engineering properties of clayey soils can be enhanced, by blending Lime and Silica Fume together.

Galvanic Cathodic Protection Evaluation of a Steel Pipe in Iraqi Soil

Jafer T. Al-Haidary; Mohammed H. Hafiz; Yasir Muhi Abdu Al-Sahib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 9, Pages 1673-1690

Corrosion is the main problem for the embedded pipelines in different
environment resistivities. The most effective method to overcome this problem is
cathodic protection which represents as a control method of the pipe corrosion.
For achieving longer life of the external corrosion control system and evaluating
the performance of aluminum alloys which have been used as sacrificed anodes
to protect the embedded carbon steel pipe in different artificial simulated
resistivity of soils in Iraq of [5000 , 1000 , 600 , 50 and 25 (Ω.cm)]. Results show
that (Al-10 wt% Zn) as sacrificial anode alloy has the best anode capacity
compared with other anodes under these conditions (Al-5 wt% Zn), and (Al-15
wt% Zn). The selection for these alloys based on that they have high potential in
many environments when coupling with steels without effect of microbial,
obstacle and stray current. The polarization curves of alloys also show no
passivation behavior in artificial resistivities. The corrosion rate of different anode
alloys was determinated as a function of applied cathodic protection.
It was found a relationship between electric potential and time which
determine the optimum potential in different soil types for the three above selected
electrodes (anodes).

Effect of Soaking on the CBR-Value of Subbase Soil

Zeena Tariq Jaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1069-1079

The effect of soaking on the top and bottom CBR value of a sub-base is studied
in this paper.
Fourteen CBR samples were prepared at 95% relative modified AASHTO
compaction .Two CBR samples were prepared for each soaking period of
0,4,7,14,30 and 60 days. These samples were prepared and compacted
mechanically in the laboratory. The first group was tested in case of unsoaked
while the second group was tested in case of soaking.
The results showed that, a significant drop in the CBR for top and bottom due to
the soaking was observed compared with natural case due to softening of soil
particles Which means that the bearing capacity of subbase soil decrease with
increase of soaking time. Most of decrease in soaked CBR value is pronounced
inthe first days for top and bottom CBR, respectively. And it dropped to 20%
and23%value for top and bottom after 60 days soaking period and this drop is in
full of weakness of soil with soaking.