Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Non

Low Energy Consumption for Cooperative and Non-cooperative Cognitive Radio

H.N. Abdullah; H.S. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 222-228

Recently the subject of energy-efficient is very important in cognitive radio (CR), especially during spectrum sensing, since the large energy consumption (EC) cost, produces a restriction in their implementation especially in devices with limited power, i.e battery. In these design, energy detector consumes a significant part of energy during spectrum sensing to detect the activity of the primary user (PU). In this paper, we investigated a method for improving EC in two scenarios: non-cooperative and cooperative. The idea behind the improvement is based on sensing the spectrum with low-density samples. The optimization concept for reducing EC through controlling the number of frequency samples to be sensed is illustrated as well as the probability of detection in both scenarios. To evaluate the proposed method a comparison is made between the proposed method and censoring method. The performance of energy detection system is evaluated in AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels. The simulation results show that in non-cooperative scenario at Eb/No equal 10 dB, and for sensing ratio equal 50%, EC decreases by 50% and 46% with sma loss in of detection probability of 5% in AWGN channel and 12% in Rayleigh channel. In cooperative scenario, the results show that as the number of cognitive users (CU) increased the average EC per user decreased with an improvement in probability of detection. In case of sensing ratio 50%, the EC is decreased by 43.6% as compared with censoring method.

A Cognitive Nonlinear Fractional Order PID Neural Controller Design for Wheeled Mobile Robot based on Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm

L.T. Rasheed; A.S. Al-Araji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 289-300

The aim of this paper is to design a proposed non-linear fractional order proportional-integral-derivative neural (NFOPIDN) controller by modifying and improving the performance of fractional order PID (FOPID) controller through employing the theory of neural network with cognitive optimization techniques for the differential - drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR) multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system in order to follow a pre-defined trajectory. In this paper a cognitive bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA) has been utilized to find and tune the parameters of the proposed (NFOPIDN) controller and then find the optimal torque control signals for the differential - drive WMR. The simulation results show that the proposed controller can give excellent performance in terms of compared with other works (minimized tracking error for Ranunculoid-curve trajectory, smoothness of torque control signals obtained without saturation state and no sharp spikes action as well as minimum number of memory units needed for the structure of the proposed NFOPIDN controller).

Design of a Nonlinear Fractional Order PID Neural Controller for Mobile Robot based on Particle Swarm Optimization

Ahmed Sabah Al-Araji; Luay Thamir Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2318-2333

The goal of this paper is to design a proposed non-linear fractional order proportional-integral-derivativeneural (NFOPIDN) controller by modifying and improving the performance of fractional order PID (FOPID) controller through employing the theory of neural network with optimization techniquesfor the differential wheeled mobile robotmulti-input multi-output (MIMO) systemin order to follow a desired trajectory. The simplicity and the ability of fast tuning are important features of the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) attracted us to use it to find and tune the proposed non-linear fractional order proportional-integral-derivative neural controller’s parameters and then find the best velocity control signals for the wheeled mobile robot. The simulation results show that the proposed controller can give excellent performance in terms of compared with other works (minimized mean square error equal to 0.131 for Eight-shaped trajectory and equal to 0.619 for Lissajous- curve trajectory as well as minimum number of memory units needed for the structure of the proposed NFOPIDN controller (M=2 for Eight-shaped trajectory and M=4 for Lissajous- curve trajectory) with smoothness of linear velocity signals obtained between (0 to 0.5) m/sec.

Effect of Tunneling in Cohesive Soils on Existing Structures

Ameer Abdullah Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 10, Pages 2475-2490

The present work is focused on the influence of shallow tunneling on the settlement of existed two storey building supported on different soil properties ranging from medium to stiff clayey soil that having young modules of "50,75 and 100 MPa". Eight locations of the tunnel center "diameter = 4m" were fixed below the building strip footing "width = 2m" at different depths and locations to determine the critical location of the tunnel at each depth.
A total of 24 Finite element CAD "ANSYS" solutions were performed on the eight locations for each of the three types of soil.
The results of the FEM analysis show that the effect of tunneling was to increase the surface settlement and creating differential settlement at the different locations and the critical location of the tunnel was when the tunnel center is located below the center line of the footing at both depths.

The Use of New Techniques in The Management of Waste Plastic by Reuse it in The Asphalt Mix

Falak O. Abas; Raghad U. Abass; Enas .A .A

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 10, Pages 2548-2567

The quantity and type of waste being generated is growing at enormous rate. The plastic waste produced particularly in form of bags, Plates, Containers, being non-degradable and with limited recycling options poses disposal problem. An academic research aimed at probable use of waste plastic in pavement structure so as to come up with an ultimate safe disposal together with improvement in the performance of asphalt mix of road through better mix design was under taken.
Preliminary investigations have indicate of RPWA (from 1.2 in (1.5 cm) to No. 200 sieve ( 0.075 cm) , in surface mix design when utilized up to (5% to 15%) by weight substitution, through the use of Box-Wilson design program in order to give an optimum condition, time of reaction, and weight percent of substitution replacement aggregate in asphalt mix. The above following variables were studied temperatures (109-206) c , time (20-60) min and weight at waste substitution (5-15) % wt. respectively. The optimum conditions were: were 172 oc, 40 min, and 10% wt RPWA.
The effects of experimental variables on the properties of improved asphalt mix were studied using the Box-Wilson technique of experimental design and useful relationships could be attained. Which improved these optimum conditions give high stability of Marshall Test and low distortion with acceptable low constant wet density and uneffect dry density with these condition with high resistance to chemical solutions exposure? It is envisaged that use of RPWA in the conventional asphalt hot mix design likely to improve the surface asphalt mix performance with sustainable solution for the disposal of plastic waste.

Design and Implementations of a Mobile Target Tracking System Using FPGA

Laiyth M. Al-Rawi; Dhafer R. Zaghar; Ekhlas H. Karam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 11, Pages 2627-2647

The design and implementations of a mobile target tracking system using field-programmable gate array (FPGA) are presented in this work. The idea of variable dimension (VD) filter which is used for tracking the nonmaneuver and maneuvering target is simplified and demonstrated by the FPGA implementations.
In general, the VD filter consist of two different Kalman filter dimensions and the fading memory detection scheme. In this tracking algorithm, the first Kalman filter is operates in its normal mode in the absence of any maneuvers, at same time, from the property of the innovation sequence and state estimates of this filter, the fading memory detector switch is used to determine that a maneuver is occurring, once a maneuver is detected the second augmented Kalman filter which uses a different state model is used to track the target in maneuvering motion course.
In this paper, the single Kalman filter is used to replace the second augmented filter of the VD algorithm, in this case when the maneuver is occur, the single filter is used in parallel with the first Kalman filter to track the target in maneuvering motion course without modifying the operation of the first Kalman filter. This step will simplified and reduce the calculation of the VD filter.The implementation for this system using FPGA will discuss in details, it will resulted to implement a low cost and mobile tracking system with high flexibility. Many of the general results presented in this paper are also useful for performance evaluation of this simplified variable dimension (SVD) filter algorithm as a compared with the VD filter algorithm.

Bayesian Estimation of the Parameter of the Exponential Distribution with Different Priors under Symmetric and Asymmetric Loss Functions

Tasnim H.K. AlBaldawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 943-956

The objective of this study is to compare the performance of some Bayesian estimators for the shape parameter of the exponential distribution. We considered three priors: the extension of Jeffreys as non- informative prior information, as well as the inverted gamma conjugate prior and the inverted chi square prior as informative prior information's. Bayes estimators have been obtained under symmetric and asymmetric loss functions: the quadratic loss function QLF and the general entropy loss function GELF, which is a modified version of the linear exponential loss function loss function LINEX. The comparison of Bayes estimators was made through a Monte Carlo simulation study on the performance of these estimators with respect to the mean square error MSE as a measure of performance.
The results of comparison showed that Bayes estimators of the shape parameter under the GELF with proper choice of γ, is a suitable alternative to the QLF when the loss is asymmetric in nature. Comparison also show that the informative priors performed better than the non-informative prior. Accordingly; if adequate information is available about the parameters it is preferable to use conjugate informative priors, otherwise the extension of Jeffreys prior gives quite reasonable results.

Process Capability Evaluation for a Non-normally Distributed One

Samah Ali Aufy; Mahmoud Abbas Mahmoud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 17, Pages 3245-3258

The common process capability indices (PCIs) Cp, Cpk, Cpm are widely used in
practice. The use of these PCIs is based on the assumptions that process is in
control and its output should be normally distributed. In practice normality is not
always fulfilled. Therefore, the use of common PCIs leads to erroneous in
capability evaluation. In this paper, capability evaluation for non-normally
distributed process is carried out in industrial environment with two approaches.
The first includes transforming data to normally distribute by Box-Cox
transforming method then using the common PCIs. This method failed to transform
these data. The second approach includes the use non-normal percentile method
with Burr XII distribution. This paper proves that the second approach is more
effective in evaluating the capability of this process. Practical case is applied in the
State Company for Electrical Industries (SCFEI) particularly in (Water Pump)
factory and Minitab 16 Software is used to reduce the long calculation of statistical
values and to plot control charts.

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Isolalted and Non- Isolated Dust Particles on Glow Discharge of Air Plasma in Direct Current System

Qusay Adnan Abbas; Rabah Abdul Hamid Edan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 5, Pages 633-640

In the present work, the effect of isolated and non-isolated dust particles on glow discharge of main air plasma charactasrics are investigated experimentally. Our results illustraited that the present of dust particle in the air plasma did not effect on Paschen minimum. This fact means that, the present of both types of dust particles did not effect on the plasma properties in high and low pressure regions (i.e. reight and left regions of Paschen minimum) . As well as, the discharge current is increases when the both dust types are immersed in a plasma column with rate rapidly in the copper oxide dust greater than copper dust particles.

Upgrading of Basrah-Kirkuk Blend Crude Oil Through Mechanical-Acoustical Effect and (Labs) as Surfactant

Adel Sharif Hamadi; Gufran Raheem; Salam Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 16, Pages 2778-2791

Non-Convential method has been used in this study for upgrading mixture of Basrah-
Kirkuk crude oil through mechanical - acoustical effect using hydrodynamical coaxial
turbo machine type Rotary Pulsation Apparatus (RPA) implementing ultra-high
reliability in shearing rotor-stator operation.
The analysis of the crude oil after treatment in RPA showed that on increasing the
rotation time from 5 to 10 min with rotor speed of 7610 rpm, leading to an increase in the
total yield of light and intermediate petroleum cuts from 30 to 39 vol%, with an increase
in API gravity from 29 to 40, reduce flash point from 75 to 54.C and reduce pour point
from -10 to -32.C.
The results also showed that, adding LABS surfactant leads to a further increase in API
gravity to 45, reduced flash point to 50.C, reduced pour point to -36 .C and increased
yield of light and intermediate fraction to 40 vol% within 10 min and 7610 rpm

Effect of Baffles on Homogenous-Heterogeneous Regime In Two Phase Bubble Column With Non-Newtonian Liquid

Asawer A. Alwasiti; Farah T. Alsudany; Ali Raad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6954-6969

This work presents a comparison of the flow region in baffled and unbaffled bubble columns with Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. The experiments were carried out in column of 15 cm inside diameter and 2m height with aspect ratio (L/D=4.5), using perforated plate gas sparger, 54 holes of 1mm diameter, and with free area of holes to cross sectional diameter of vessel 0.24. The two phase system consists of air and non Newtonian liquid of polyacrylamide (PAA). The gas holdup was measured and the transition point from homogenous to heterogeneous region was calculated under different concentrations of PAA (0,
0.01, 0.05, and 0.1)wt% in baffled and unbaffled columns. The results show that the measured values of gas holdup are increased in the presences of baffles in homogenous region, while, they decrease in heterogeneous region. The transition points of gas holdup and superficial gas velocity were estimated from drift flux plot. It was concluded that they were decreased with increasing viscosity and increased in the presence of baffles.

Seismic Analysis Using Three Dimensional Modeling

Mohammed Ahmed A. Al-Hamdany

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1454-1463

Three-dimensional dynamic analysis is required for a large number of different
types of structural systems that are constructed in Seismic Zones. The lateral force
requirements suggest several methods that can be used to estimate the distribution of
seismic forces within a structure. However, these guidelines are not unique and need
further interpretations. The major advantage of using the forces obtained from a
dynamic analysis as the basis for a structural design is that the vertical distribution of
forces may significantly be different from the forces obtained from an equivalent static
load analysis.

Modeling ofMixing in The Liquid Phase For Bubble Column

Ali H. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1992-2007

Hydrodynamic characteristics (mixing in the liquid phase) in a bubble column with a non-Newtonian liquid phase (aqueous solutions of carboxymethylcellulose, or CMC, at different concentrations) were measured and correlated. Experiments in a 0.2-m diameter, 2.4-m-high bubble column were carried out to determine degree of mixing
in the liquid phase at various gas and liquid flow rates. The axial dispersion model was used in the two operating modes, batch and continuous, and the tanks-in-series model was used just in the case of continuous mode. The axial dispersion model with closed-closed boundary conditions fit experimental data quite well and thus was used
to estimate the axial dispersion coefficient. This parameter was higher in batch mode than in continuous mode, and its trend was to increase as superficial gas velocity increased.

Studies Pressure Drop of gas-Non-Newtonian Liquid Two Phase Flow in Bubble Column

Ali H. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 7, Pages 1336-1350

An exclusive study has been done on experimental investigation of the two-phase flow
pressure drop in an air-non-Newtonian liquid (CMC solutions) system in bubble column.
The effects of gas and liquid flow rate on two-phase pressure drop have been illustrated.
Experiments in a 0.2-m diameter, 2.4-m-high bubble column were carried out to determine
the pressure drop. At the selected superficial velocities, two flow regimes were observed:
heterogeneous bubbling flow and heterogeneous churn turbulent flow, they were identified
through the slope changes in the plots of pressure drop and gas holdup. The pressure drop
did not seem to be affected by the superficial liquid velocity and it was increased as the
superficial gas velocity decreased or the CMC concentrations increased.

Predicting Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete by Using Non-destructive Tests

Sura F. Al-Khafaji; Waleed A. Al-Qaisi; Shakir A. Al-Mishhadani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 425-444

In this study, high performance concrete mixes were produced by using high
range water reducing agent and also by using 10% silica fume or 10% high
reactivity metakaolin as a partial replacement by weight of cement. Three cement
contents (350, 450, and 550) kg/m3 were used through this study. A total of 330
(100 mm) cubes, 132 (100×200 mm) cylinders, 132 (100×100×400 mm) prisms,
and 66 (150×300 mm) cylinders were casted and cured to the required age of test .
All specimens were cured in tap water except 165 cubes, which were submerged in
Cl ˉ + SO4ˉ ˉ solution at concentration identical to those present in severe
aggressive environment to study the effect of this solution on the compressive
strength of high performance concrete mixes. Compressive strength, splitting
tensile strength, modulus of rupture, static modulus, rebound number, ultrasonic
pulse velocity, dynamic modulus, initial surface absorption, density ,and total
absorption tests were investigated for all mixes at 7, 28, 90, and 120 days age.
Results of the destructive tests (compressive tensile strength, strength, splitting
modulus of rupture, and static modulus) and non–destructive tests (hammer,
ultrasonic pulse velocity, and dynamic modulus) are statistically analyzed by using
SPSS Ver.15 software to study the possibility of predicting the mechanical
properties of high performance concrete by using non–destructive tests. Simple and
multiple linear regression analysis of the obtained results leads to the proposed
statistical models for evaluating the compressive strength, splitting tensile
strength, modulus of rupture, and static modulus by using one or two or three of
the above mentioned non–destructive tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
and t–test was also used to investigate the adequacy of the statistical models.

The Effects of Bearing Dimensions and Adjustable Mechanism Position for Six Pads Bearing under Dynamic Load

Muhannad Zedan Khalifa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 454-467

The hydrodynamic bearing consists of six pads these pads have the ability to tilt
about the clamping edge. Reynolds equation (2D) for dynamically loaded was used to find
the generated pressure value throughout the mobility method and the finite difference
method. The effects of many parameters of bearing were studied in this paper such as length
to diameter ratios, power loss, oil flow rate, Sommerfeld number, load number, friction
coefficient and by using the “Ansys program” for stress and strain analysis over the pad
surface (white metal), to select the best position location for adjustable pads mechanism
from leading edge angle to trailing edge angle of pad central angle (PCA=55°) by taking
nine different positions. The best angle for the adjusting member was found about (41.25o)
after leading angle of the pad, the adjusting member in the maximum pressure region gave
minimum radial displacement (elastic deformation) values.