Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Solar energy

Electricity Generation from Hydro, Wind, Solar and the Environment

Olumide A. Towoju; Oluwatoyin A. Oladele

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 1392-1398
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i9.2145

Human actions such as electricity generation are contributory causes of climate change. In a quest to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases associated with electricity generation from fossil fuels, the world is turning to renewables. Renewable sources, however, also do have an impact on the environment. Likewise, renewable electricity generation is also dependent on the climate. Hydro, Wind, and Solar are the popular renewable energy sources for the generation of electricity. This work reviews the impact of these renewables in electricity generation on the environment. It also considers the effect of climate change on its use. The construction of renewable electricity generating plants leads to habitat disruptions and can also cause fatalities. Climate change weighs an enormous impact on the performance of renewable electricity generating plants. The recent blackout experienced in Texas as a result of the cold weather is a good example. The end of extreme weather conditions is not yet, and the need to start preparing to prevent a blackout re-occurrence. A possible solution for sustainable renewable electricity generation in extreme weather conditions lies in synthetic fuel availability.

Removal of Nitrate from Contaminated Groundwater Using Solar Membrane Distillation

Alaa H. Al-Fatlawi; Mohsen Karrabi; Ghassan Abukhanafer; Ahmed AL Samlan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 3C, Pages 327-332
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.3C.4

Nitrate contamination is worldwide water pollution posing a major
health hazard to human and animal life. Challenges are being faced to get fresh
water for the areas having a low amount of usable water. This study aims to
asses and evaluates the feasibility of removing nitrate from groundwater by
using cheap approaches. A pilot-scale solar distillation membrane filter, was
designed and constructed for this study, the set up was designed into two
partitions: i) water heater and ii) membrane distillation. The effect of several
operating parameters such as feed and distillate temperature, nitrate
concentration, and pH, on water flux and nitrate removal efficiency, was
investigated. The results showed that 85 and 93 percent removal efficiencies for
nitrate and total dissolved solids, respectively. The effect of important
parameters of solar performance membrane filter distillation (SPMFD) process
including solar collector efficiency (𝜂𝑐
), gained output ratio (GOR) and
significant operating parameters containing feed and condensate temperature,
feed nitrate concentration and pH were studied in this work and it could be
concluded that water flux was increased exponentially with increasing feed
temperature, and under the same operating conditions, average water flux
changed from 9.52 to 34 kg/m2 per hour when temperature increased from 60
to 90 °C gradually. However, no significant effect was found by varying nitrate
and TDS concentration and pH on water flux. It can be concluded that
membrane distillation and solar desalination processes could be the efficient
methodologies to exploit in the large nitrate-affected rural areas of Iraq and its
surrounding with abundant sunlight, particularly during the critical dry season

Optimal Sizing of Photovoltaic Irrigation Water Pumping System in Samara

Ali H. Al-Hamdani; Majed Hassan; Roshen Tariq Ahmad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 16, Pages 3067-3077

Water pumping from wells and rivers for irrigation is a well established
procedure on many farms in Iraq and is practical on various levels around the world.
Typical irrigation systems consume a great amount of conventional energy through
the use of electric motors and generators powered by fuel.
The overall objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of using
photovoltaic (PV) modules to power a water pump for a small-scale irrigation system
in the North-West of Iraq (Samara). The study involved field observations,
simulations of global solar radiation and PV electrical output.
Field observations involved an installation of 24-monocrystaline silicon PV
modules as shown in figure (1). This system was installed to give maximum power
equal to (1960 watt) with maximum open circuit voltage (Voc = 175 volts) and
maximum short circuit ( Isc= 14 Amp ). This module was connected to the pump via a
charge controller and AC inverter. The parameters monitored were voltage, current,
back-of-panel temperature, pressure, and flow. These observed parameters were used
to determine PV electrical output and volume of water pumped. Site latitude,
elevation, and panel tilt were applied to the solar radiation and PV electrical output
models. PV electrical output and volume of water pumped were monitored between
January 2000 and December 2000. As expected, an increase in power causes an
increase in the volume of water pumped.