Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Environment


Monitoring Soil Degradation in The Mesopotamian Plain Using GIS and Remote sensing Techniques

Abdulrazak T. Ziboon; Muthanna M. Albayati; Fadhaa T. Dalhel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 649-660
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.2121

In the present work , various remote sensing techniques have been used to investigate soil degradation in Iraq (The Mesopotamian plain) for the period (1976 - 2021) using different research and data like satellite image such as (Landsat 1-5 MSS 1976 , Landsat 4-5 TM C1 Level-1 1996, Landsat 8 2016 and sentinel-2 2021 ) , using different Program and software (ENVI 5.3 which extract data from image satellite by using TCT , EMI and NDVI indicators , Eras image 2015 use to subset area of interest ,layer stack and merge resolution , Arc GIS 10.7 use to make database and maps production ),the article use some of filters and indicators , Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Elian Mapping Index (EMI), Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT) to extract a set of indicators (area of vegetation cover (NDVI), soil erosion index (EMI) , classification of wet and dry soils, and water cover calculation (TCT), the article will be   calculate the areas accurately to know the type and causes of degradation by comparing those lands with past years by observing them with satellites for different years (advanced remote sensing techniques).

Hydrochemical and Environmental Assessment of Groundwater in Al-Yusufiyah District South-west Baghdad, Iraq

Rafal Abdulrazzaq; Tariq Abed Hussain; Ghufran F. Jumaah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 459-471
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i3.2045

Groundwater in Yusufiyah  represents the main water source for drinking and irrigation purposes in the dry season, so this research was conducted to assess and evaluate the hydrochemistry of groundwater in this area. (15) wells were selected for sampling in this area with depth ranges between 10-20 meters. , Groundwater generally flows from east to west and from northeast to southwest.Physical parameters for water samples were measured included temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS),where the chemical parameters included major cations (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+2, and K+) and major anions (NO3-1, SO4-2,Cl-, and HCO3-).  The results indicated that groundwater in the study area isnot suitable for human drinking due to high concentrations in(CL=435 ppm), (SO4-2 =769 ppm), (HCO-3=280 ppm),(TDS=2375 ppm), and (EC=2899µc). These values exceeded the standard limits of  WHO. On the other hand, results show that this water was suitable for irrigation (good and Permissible except for well no.1,8,12,13, which wasnot suitable for all irrigation crops due to an increase in (SAR, Na) to the Don classification 1995.

Comparative Study of Specifications Between Local and Imported Water Pumps and an Energy-Efficient Local Developed Pump

Maryam K. Abdul Wahid; Lamyaa M. Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1511-1521
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.1317

Conserving energy is one of those important requirements of the environment. In this research, an eco-friendly power saving Water pump [Air coolers] is developed. This development is based on GQFD. The model of this developed Water pump is drawn by a CAD solid model (version 7, Autodesk AutoCAD 2011). The electrical motor is responsible for the rotation of the pillar and further distributes Water inside the Air cooler [regardless of the size]. In the developed model motor is canceled where the rotation is throughout attachment to the Air cooler. A further prototype of this model is made were common and environmental quality requirements are assessed so as to verify the feasibility of the developed Water pumps. Results show that the power saving (developed) Water pump is of better-quality characteristics relative to available Water pumps available in the Iraqi market and higher head (1.60 m), Velocity in RPM (4600), and flow rate (8.6 L/sec). Also, the developed Water pump is of less noise, a number of parts, pollution, and is safer [regarding environmental requirements]. Due to the development results show save in voltage and current.