Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : GIS

Monitoring Soil Degradation in The Mesopotamian Plain Using GIS and Remote sensing Techniques

Abdulrazak T. Ziboon; Muthanna M. Albayati; Fadhaa T. Dalhel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2022, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 649-660
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v40i5.2121

In the present work , various remote sensing techniques have been used to investigate soil degradation in Iraq (The Mesopotamian plain) for the period (1976 - 2021) using different research and data like satellite image such as (Landsat 1-5 MSS 1976 , Landsat 4-5 TM C1 Level-1 1996, Landsat 8 2016 and sentinel-2 2021 ) , using different Program and software (ENVI 5.3 which extract data from image satellite by using TCT , EMI and NDVI indicators , Eras image 2015 use to subset area of interest ,layer stack and merge resolution , Arc GIS 10.7 use to make database and maps production ),the article use some of filters and indicators , Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Elian Mapping Index (EMI), Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT) to extract a set of indicators (area of vegetation cover (NDVI), soil erosion index (EMI) , classification of wet and dry soils, and water cover calculation (TCT), the article will be   calculate the areas accurately to know the type and causes of degradation by comparing those lands with past years by observing them with satellites for different years (advanced remote sensing techniques).

The Evaluation of Rental Amount of Religious Endowments by Using Geomatic Techniques and Machine Learning Algorithms Hilla/ Iraq

Oday, Z. Jasim; Mohammed Mejbel; Ali Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2021, Volume 39, Issue 12, Pages 1837-1850
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v39i12.2111

The religious endowments are one of the important sources, which acquire historical, cultural, and economic importance in all countries of the world. In particular, a religious endowment in Iraq includes several distributed real estates and lands that usually require efficient management systems. One of the most important factors affecting the management of real estates that belong to religious endowments is the rental amount of each real estate. In general, the estimation of the rental of real estates can support the future development of religious endowments. Governmental agencies are faced with some challenges in the management of religious endowments in terms of rental pricing due to numerous economic and geographic factors. The rapid development of artificial intelligence systems and Geomatic techniques can present a framework for rental amount estimation based on spatial and non-spatial factors. In this study, a machine learning algorithm (Support Vector Regression) will be combined with Geographic Information System (GIS) to predict and evaluate the rental amount of real estates that belong to a religious institution in Iraq (Shiite endowment in Hillah city). The final results indicated that the proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 71%, a root mean square error of 0.2257 million Iraq, Dinar (IQD), and a correlation coefficient of 0.9272. This study can be used as an effective tool for the decision-makers to plan and manage the religious endowments in developing countries.  

Updating Cadastral Maps using GIS Techniques

A. AL-Hameedawi; S.J. Mohammed; I. Thamer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 246-253

The Cadastral maps are very important since they have technical and materialist specification of the property borders. However, these maps despite their use as land registration in world in general but in Iraq; the old maps are unfit for use. Therefore, updating and digitizing the cadastral maps are very pivotal. In the present work, we have an old agricultural cadastral map since thirties as a hardcopy which was digitized then updated using control points and modern satellite image (QuickBird 2009) for the same area. In this research, we upgraded the methodology for updating of the agricultural cadastral maps of Iraq based on the use of Differential Global Position system (DGPS), Total Station, and Satellite Imagery, in addition to the cadastral editor extension in ArcGIS software to produce new agricultural maps. The tolerance of this approach was tested by root mean square errors in addition the parcel points were compared with land records and QuickBird image. The motivation of current work was due to there are no modern cadastral maps for the study area, which is located in province of Wassit South-East of Baghdad. The results can be used as a basis for the decision makers in addition; this methodology can be utilized to solve problems relating to land property in study area and can be extrapolated to other datasets.

Evaluation of the Operational Speed for Iraqi Railways Using Geomatics Techniques

Maysoon Mohamed Hamed; Ammar A.M. Shubber; Abudl Al Razzak T.Zboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2249-2257

Theresearch evaluation is the current operational speeds of Iraqi railway lines within Geomatics techniques . It aims improving operational speeds where fined the level of speeds in Iraq has reached in some places to (5 km/h) for the north line. Also determining the factors affecting the speed and causing the decline of the railway, such as soil, the old design of line, the large number of irregular crossings, bad maintenance of fences, means of communication is very bad and almost without safty fences , a single line, except some lines and some climate element which reflected negatively on the performance of the railway, the large number of accidents with operational speed of passenger trains ranged between (20-90) km/h at a time (10) hours for the south line, and (20-80) km/h for north line. it is improved by reducing the time on the orders of caution, time to enter and exit from the station, stop at the stations time, increasing operational speed up to (80-90) km/ h, these improvements one possibly achieved by raising the irregular crossings or convert regular crossings to overpass , treatment of soil, good maintenance (for the rail lines, the protective fence), and the use of modern communication and signals system. A proposal to reduce the trip time from Baghdad to Basrah to (5.13) hour at a percentage 23% to (98-110.7) km/h(because it’s the only working line) as in the case at India where a study for upgrading track standards of conventional track with diesel and electric traction which is close to the specifications of the reality case of the Iraqi railway nets .

Determination The Suitable Locations for Drilling Wells for Irrigation purpose by using Geographic Information System (GIS

Alaa Ghadhban Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 80-89

This study was conducted for the purpose of study and analysis of groundwater in the Karbala Governorate. Relied on a set of data and maps that relate to groundwater, topography and geology of the region in addition to 60 wells were distributed randomly in the region, all of this data has been entered in GIS environment to performance geometric and digital processing for it and completion of the analysis and extract the results from it.After conducting all necessary analyzes has been produced digital map that shows the best places to drill wells for irrigation in the region, depend on the topography of the region, basins and streams, sodium ratio and the proportion of dissolved salts in the groundwater in addition to the depths of those waters.where , the best place to drill wells was selected in the areas which has a little slopes because it contain high proportion of groundwater in addition to the sodium ratio in these areas does not exceed 40%, and this ratio consider good for irrigation, as well as the proportion of dissolved salts which range from 2,000 to 5,000 ppm and Although the height of this proportion , but the nature of the soil in the area and depths of groundwater led to use this water for irrigation , where it was observed that the soil of the region contain a high percentage of sand, in addition to the groundwater depths greater than 5 meter and this led to lack of water and salts accumulate in the plant root zone. Also three-dimensional map has been produced for the aquifer and the depths and thickness of the aquifer groundwater in the area.

The Impact of Security Precautions on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Collection in Baghdad Sections

Husham AbdMunaf Atta

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 5, Pages 1202-1212

In this study ,spatial video camera was used to capture field data required to establish a geospatial data base that was used with ArcGIS Network analyst for the development of a methodology for the optimization of MSW collection in limited area that have barriers enclosing some roads as a precaution procedure. The method uses various geographical data (road network, location of waste bins, and location of barriers), to measure the difference in time traveled by collecting vehicles. The Results indicate that the presence of barriers increasing the distance traveled by collecting vehicles (23%) in comparison with no barrier scenario each time .With the collecting interval twice a week, this means that a saving of two trips each month if the barriers removed.The study demonstrated the value of spatial videos and GISas decision making tools.
Further work should focuses on wider areas and also the path from collected areas to sanitary landfills or any other last destination for the wastes and quantify the fuel consumption , gases resulted and total cost differences resulted from the security precaution procedures .

Landfill Site Selection for Kerbala Municipal Solid Wastes by Using Geographical Information System Techniques

Riyad Al-Anbari; AumarAlnakeeb; Mohammad A. Abdulredha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 13, Pages 3130-3144

One of the serious and growing potential problems in most large urban areas is the shortage of land for waste disposal. Although there are some efforts to reduce and recover the waste, disposal in landfills is still the most common method for solid wastes destination. Optimized siting decision reduces negative effects to residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill area in Kerbala are determined by using the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and multi- criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Eight input digital map layers including urban centers, Hamlets, industrial areas, sub roads, wetlands, pipe line, soil characteristics, and surface water are produced using a geographical information system. Simple additive weighing method (SAW) within (MCDA) is used to analyze the prepared maps and produce final suitability map. According to the digital maps produced by this method, the analysis results in selection of one landfill site located in the north of Kerbala city. The area of landfill site selected is 6,800,000 m2 and, its volume is 20,400,000 m3.

Utilization of Remote Sensing Data and GIS Applications for Determination of the Land Cover Change in Karbala Governorate

Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon; Imzahim Abdulkareem Alwan; Alaa Ghadhban Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 15, Pages 2773-2787

This study was conducted to determine the land cover changes between year 1976
and year 2011 in Karbala Governorate by using an integrated approach of remote
sensing data and GIS applications for investigation of the spatial and temporal
changes. A part of Karbala Governorate, whose Area is 768 km2 was selected as study
Four cloud free Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and SPOT scenes covering the study
area were selected for analysis. Images were acquired in years 1976, 1990, 2001, and
2011 respectively. All images which mentioned above are rectified and registered in
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection zone 38 N and supervised image
classification system has been observed to classify the images in different land cover
categories. Six land cover classes have been identified and used to determine the
change in land cover in study area and these classes are: Agricultural land, Water
bodies, Urban Area, Sand dunes, Bare soil, and Waterlogged Area. According to the
results obtained from statistics of classification, it was observed that most changes
occurred in heterogeneous agricultural areas. It is thought that the main reasons of this
change are increasing population pressure, increasing sand dunes, appearance and
increasing waterlogged area and changing economic activities. Those reasons have
been led to the decrease of the agricultural areas in study area during period from year
2001 to 2011.

Production of Digital Map for the Sources of Pollution in Nassiriya Marshes by Using “GIS”

Ali Karem Shaesh; Abbas Jawad Kadhem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 8, Pages 121-136

Iraqi marshes are one of the most important biodiversity in the world. They had many problems: bad environmental conditions, as well as decreasing of the amount of water that reaches marshes after restoration, in addition to the increase in the source of pollution around the marshes as a result of villages, hospitals, factories ….etc. All these reasons cause dispersion of pollutants in the marshes. This research study the source of pollution such as ( industrial, agricultural, medical, political and waste water) in Nassiriya marshes and project them on the digital maps to generate a final map represents all the sources of pollutants in this region. The research shows the environmental and medical effects of this pollutants and comprising them with the Iraqi environmental legislations.

Digital Geotechnical Maps of Basrah City Using Geographical Information Systems Technique

Mohanad M. Kadhim; Namir K. S. Al-Saoudi; Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 599-617

The work in this research presents the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) which integrated with remote sensing (RS) techniques in geotechnical engineering for Basrah city south of Iraq. These maps provide a powerful database and strong visual presentation of geotechnical data.
The research is performed in several stages that started with the utilize of LNADSAT 7 ETM+ satellite image with 14.25 m resolution within the visible bands of the study area, applying the geometric correction and performing image enhancements by using ERDAS software. Then collection of laboratory tests reports of boreholes is conducted in the study area and projecting their location as a layer using ArcGIS software after determining their position using a GPS instrument. The total number of soil investigated reports is (31) with total number of boreholes is (105).
The results of this study emphasize the possibility of producing digital geotechnical maps by using ArcGIS software that represents the distribution of the geotechnical properties for study area, such as allowable bearing capacity, the normalized undrained shear strength (cu/P'o), Liquidity Index and compression index.

Building Program to Calculate the Statistical Information of the Concentrations of Metal Using GIS

Tariq Naji Otaiwi; Hameed Sarhan Ismael

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-13

This paper deals with building a program to deal with geographic information system files in the field of mineral concentrations of the materials. Where it is open shape file of all kinds and usage of the basic functions with the file such as exploring the file information (Spatial Data) , (Tabular Data) , (ZoomIn, ZoomOut) , (Identify) and (Pan) ... etc. The key Function of the program in addition to the above is to account the statistical information to the data that represent concentrations of mineral extracted for metals and materials of different concentrations of the land represented by the Shape file point and scales 1:25000, 1:100000 and 1:250000, the program has been built using the programming language Visual basic and program Mapobject.

Prepare of Mapping the Distribution of Schools in Kut City Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 650-663

The increased rates of urbanization have resulted in doubling the number of schools in
in the city randomly, which resulted in building schools lacking the most appropriate
standards required like being fit with the convenient environmental and health conditions
or being away from natural and human dangers, because of the great abilities that the
geographic information systems gives which help in finding the most appropriate
solutions and making the best decisions, especially with regard to processing and analysis
of spatial information. Thus, the current research aims at using GIS in assessing the
current status of school sites in all stages of primary intermediate and high school,
according to a set of natural, human and social standards. As well as the employment of
GIS to document the locations of the current distribution of schools in the city to produce
digital maps of sites and the pattern of distribution of schools subject to update, then it
suggests amending some of the sites according to the degree of suitability criteria in
research. To achieve these aims, the research depends on the data available at the
directorate of education in wassit, in addition to the field survey to identify the location of
schools accurately using GPS and updating the data available. The research finds the
existence of concentration in the distribution of schools which is concentrated in some
regions, random in others or regular in others. In general, this distribution may not reflect
a situation similar to the distribution among all regions in the city.

Contour and Digital Terrain Models of Soil Properties Digital Maps Using Geographic Information System

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 799-813

The research aims to use the technical abilities for geographic information system in the field of designing and drawing maps by saving huge amount of information in a fast and organized way also to shows data and maps from the computer in high speed. In addition it makes corrections on maps in high speed and in the least cost and time. Also high accuracy in data analysis which is difficult in manual ways.
Further more it enables as to analyze the geographic information and connect between them in an easy way. It takes out new information from the original information on the maps like taking out digital terrain model from the Contour Maps and to show loca information system on the computer with maximization and minimization also changing the scale easily and the ability of three dimensions showing. In this study the information were gathered from the soil reports of the National
Center for Construction Laboratories for different parts of Baghdad area in addition to Laboratory reports done by Consultation Bureaus. Three soil properties were studied permeability as a physical property, pH as a chemical property and bearing capacity of soil as a engineering property. These data were treated and analyzed by using geographic information system to produce contour maps, after that local
analysis was done for data to come up with digital terrain models in a three dimensional figure to manifest earth surface. By these abilities, a digital data base was made for these properties that can be generalization for all soil properties and for all parts of Iraq, which enables to do the recyclization and treatment and analysis easily in making the designing and planning of any engineering project

Using 3D Analysis of GIS and Remote Sensing for Modeling Erbil Water Flow and Sewerage Network

Amjed Naser Mohsin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 15, Pages 4910-4925

Objective of this paper is to show the logical development of digital
technologies that explain and show the movement of water in two- and
three-dimensions (2D and 3D) as observed in nature. Flow of water is a
special case of fluid flow in porous media, and is governed by the laws of physics, in particular the laws of fluid mechanics. Fluid mechanics deals with the motion of fluids and with the forces The purpose of this paper is to obtain 3D digital map of flow that enable to interprets the state variables of water(superficial and ground water) in each point of the flow domain and if necessary also in time. The improper disposal of sewage is one of the major factors threatening the health and comfort of individuals in areas where satisfactory municipal, on-site, or individual facilities are not available. This paper not only shows the impact of water flow and its relationship with landuse but also illustrate the areas that out of service of sewerage network in Erbil city (study area). Modeling flow let us see how water or other materials move from a source point (or points) through a network or over a surface with aiding of GIS and remote sensing thus help
in analyzing water sources in Erbil city and understand how these water
sources used . The final 3D digital map contains all necessary information for users and designers to reach to the best decision.

Digitally Processed Geophysical Data Sets for Identification of Geological Features in Southern Iraq

Hussein H. Karim; Hussain Z. Ali; Ahmed H. Hamdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 236-252

The conventional remotely-sensed satellite imagery is suited for regional
investigations in areas of good exposures which are reduced in southern Iraq due to
vegetation, water – covered areas and flat terrains. An imagery produced from
digitally processed geophysical data is an extremely powerful technique for
identification of geological features in such areas of extreme economic importance .
By utilizing an appropriate digital processing, the geophysical contour maps have
been converted to geophysical images. Images produced from digitally processed
geophysical data (gravity and aeromagnetic) have been analyzed by polynomial
filtering ( using several degrees ) allow major features to be delineated clearly. An
integrated image of gravity and aeromagnetic data sets has been produced using the
best of polynomial filtering ( 6th degree residuals ) . The interpretation of final output
images shows the association of negative gravity and magnetic residual anomalies
with some anticlinal structures , while positive residuals are associated with the
others. The positive residuals could be due to basement uplift , and the reversed
values could be due to deep- seated light core probably salt beds. Basrah depression
exhibits negative residuals.

Lineaments Analysis and Mapping From Satellite Images For Southern Iraq

Ahmed H. Hamdullah; Hussain Z. Ali; Hussein H. Karim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1952-1965

Synergistic display of data recorded by different remote sensing has proved
extremely valuable for the extraction of geological features such as lineaments .
Accordingly , two satellite images were used for lineaments analyses which are
considered as indicators for rock fractures . Image resolution merge and
directional filtering methods were applied for lineaments extraction using GIS
techniques .Rose diagram and lineaments density analysis were used for the traced
lineaments . The output of these techniques are used to trace new lineaments as a
regional lineaments map . a synergistic display of these regional lineaments with
geophysical images allows the major lithological and structural boundaries to be
mapped . Evaluation of lineaments map and its rose diagram analyses shows that
the dominant lineament trend is mainly NW-SE and NE-SW. It is concluded that
these lineaments indicate the fault zones within the area. Besides, a considerable
conformity has been noticed between the location and dimension of such
lineaments with subsurface anomalies appeared in geophysical images

3-D Virtual Maps Production for Mosul City by USING GIS Techniques

Abdul Razzak T.Ziboon; Amjed Naser Mohsin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1775-1789

With the developments in digital image processing techniques, 3D models of objects are transferred to the digital form from the hardcopy form. 3D visualization was performed by using Erdas Imagine Virtual GIS module. The model was enhanced with huge additional data. Since the model covers a very huge area of Mosul city, more information was added to the model to show the location names.Also local services and road network was superimposed to the visualization. As a result
of research, a user can fly over all Mosul city, may watch the topography, towns, local services places by using this model ,also the final 3d digital map contain all necessary information for users and designers to reach to the best decision.

Estimation of Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste Generation Rate

Adnan A. Alsamawi; Abdul Razzak T. Zboon; Aumar Alnakeeb

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 81-95

Generally In this paper, Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Generate for
five years period (from year 2006 to year 2010). This Period are estimated as a minimum
duration of landfill site operation time. Geographic Information System (GIS) technique
are used to prepare digital map of Baghdad city to determine all of Baghdad ten districts
areas and its geographic distribution. Population size forecasting are interpolated to find
urban population size of each district and its population density. Depending on economic
studies of population wealth variation of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the
adopted percentage of the chronically poor population in Baghdad which could
reach 40% in some districts, the individual waste generation rates of each districts
are assumed to ranged between 0.3 and 0.8 kg/capita/day. A value of 0.63
kg/capita/day is concluded for the year 2006 and increase it at a net rate (growth
rate less waste reduction rate) of the expected GDP increase of 4% per year to
reach 0.74 kg/capita/day in year 2010. Comparison between the obtained estimation
with other studies for other countries, puts Iraq in class of middle income countries.