Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : AFM


Gas Sensitivity of ITO Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

R. J . Halbos; S. AL-Algawi; R.T. Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 10, Pages 981-986

Indium oxide and indium tin oxide composite (ITO) were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating (SGDC) technique. The particles annealed at (200 ◦C, 400 ◦C). The structure and surface morphology of particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), FT-IR and UV/visible measurements. The XRD and AFM indicate decreasing in the particle size and improve of optical and electrical properties of composite with increasing of tin oxide addition. The hall measurement were used to obtain information about the type of conductivity of indium oxide and indium tin oxide thin films and carrier concentration and mobility and resistivity, the results of Hall measurements show that the In2O3 and ITO composite have n-type. The thin film of composite ITO at composition (80:20) mole ratio has high sensitivity toward CO gas compared with pure indium oxide.

Investigation of Laser Assisted Etching for Preparation Silicon Nanostructure and Diagnostic Physical Properties

Zahraa J. Abdulkareem; Uday M. Nayef; Kadhim A.Hubeatir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 595-601

In this paper; nanostructure porous silicon (PS) was prepared by using photo-electrochemical etching (PECE) of n-type silicon at 10 & 30 mA/cm2 etching current density for 10 minute. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of porous silicon and the crystal size is reduced toward nanometric scale. The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) investigation shows the sponge like structure of PS, the width of surface pits and surface roughness increase with etching current density.Finally, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) illustrates the PS layer have large amount of dangling bonds.

Morphology, Optical and Electrical Properties of Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Method

Wafaa K. Khalef; Eklas K. Hamza; Amenah A. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 539-546

Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Structure, optical and electrical properties of prepared films at different concentration (0.1, 0.2,0.3,0.4) mol/litter were studied at substrate temperature (550ºC) .UV-Vis spectrophotometer shows that the transmittance increases with the decrease in the concentration of SnO2 thin films and it received 87% for the lower concentration (0.1 mol/litter). From AFM image notice that the smoothness and homogeneous of the films are decreasing with increasing the aqueous solution molarity. I-V characteristic of the SnO2 films shows the thin film behavior was close to Ohm’s law.

Production of Micro and Nano Zirconia Particle by Pulsed Laser Ablation

Mohammed Sellab Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 10, Pages 2376-2385

In this work, zerconia nano particles have been synthesis by using laser ablation in water. AFM measurement displayed that the particle size of Zerconia was 46nm and no other phases have been noticed. The root mean square of surface roughness becomes 0.743nm after laser ablation, while before that was 2.33nm. Granularity distribution chart observed that the particle size distribution of Zerconia before laser ablation was (100-400) nm, while after that become (20-80) nm .The microstructure investigation of zerconia nano particle was carried out by using SEM.

Structural,Morphology and PL Properties of ZnO Film Deposition on Porous Silicon

Uday Muhsin Nayef; Mohammed Waleed Muayad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 6, Pages 1106-1110

ZnO thin film was deposited on glass and porous silicon by spray pyrolysis technology with fixed parameters consist (substrate temperature 400Co, deposition rate 100nm/min), and the measurements of structural (XRD), morphology (AFM) and photoluminesces (PL) refer to good growth of ZnO after using porous silicon more than using glass and that's come from sponge like structure of porous silicon and large spastic area of porous silicon (about 500m2/cm3).

Effects of Gamma Radiation on Optical and Structural Properties of Cadmium Telluride Thin Films

Hayder Mohammad Ajeel; Zainab T. Hussein; Khalid M.Thajeel; Rassol Hussein Mekkilf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 4, Pages 811-818

Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin films were prepared by thermal evaporation technique in the vacuum of about 3 × 10−3 mbar .using commercial glass substrates. The CdTe thin films were the effect gamma (γ) radiation on the grain size with dose 0.5µCi and membrane surface of treated films before and after to exposure period to gamma radiation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the films are polycrystalline structure with hexagonal lattices and had preferred growth of grains along the (002) crystallographic direction. Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopic recognized. The optical band gap of thin films was found to allow direct transition with energy gap of 1.7 eV.

Dependence of Structure and Optical Characterization of (Bi2Te3) Films Prepared by Flash Evaporation on Annealing Temperatures

Hussain Kh.Rasheed; Ghuson H .Mohamed; Khalil I. Inad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 4, Pages 729-736

In this study Bi2Te3 stoichiometry alloy was fabricated by using melting method in the electric furnce at temperature (580 0C for 6h). Thin films (Bi2Te3 ) were deposited by flash technique under vacuum 10-5 Torr . The thickness measured of films was 500nm .the influence of annealing temperature (100 -200) 0C was studied structure and optical properties of Bi2Te3 thin films. Structural properties for thin films of Bi2Te3 were investigated by XRD and AFM analysis. The XRD analysis of alloy show that poly crystalline phase for Bi2Te3 stoichiometry while the films prepared were amorphous at room temperature and phase transition to polycrystalline under annealing with preffered orientation at (015) corresponding to( 2θ =27.639) .FT-IR measured were studied for Bi2Te3 in range of (400-4000 )cm-1 under annealing temperature and this measured show that decreasing of Eg with increasing annealing temperature ,this can be interpreted in term improved the crystal structure.

Properties of Nano Thin Film Composed of Nan Crystalline Zro2 Prepared by (SOL - GEL) Method

Kassim Mohammed Sahan; Aqel Mashot Jafar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 23-32

Nano-crystalline ZrO2 was prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on glass substrate by dip-coating technique method in the room temperature. ZrOCl2 was dissolved in a solvent mixture composed of H2O2 and ammonia. The dissolving reaction produced a colorless, transparent peroxozirconium complex solution. The mean nanocrystalline size was about 7.55 nm. The zirconium film thus obtained was transparent 90% with 5.03 eV band gap. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and (UV-Vis) used to determine the properties of the thin film. The as-deposited thin film was of high purity of ZrO2 and good adhesion to the substrate. The annealing was caused crystallization of tetragonal and monoclinic phase present in the zirconia at 550°C in air. The film showed very flat surfaces consisting of nanoparticles with particle size of ranging (2-10 nm).

Synthesis and Study of the Structural and Electrical Conductivity for Nanocrystalline PbS Thin Films

Ali M. Mousa; Selma M. Al-Jawad; SuadM.Kadhim Al-shammari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 6, Pages 714-719

Structural and electrical properties of prepared nanocrystalline lead sulfide thin films were studied which deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) techniques. The films were obtained in a reaction bath at times of (15, 30, 45,60and90) min. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements confirmed that the thin films grown by this technique had good crystalline cubic structures and homogeneous surfaces. The dc electrical conductivity found in the range of 10-6 -10-5 (Ω.cm)-1.

Study the Effect of Oblique Deposition on Surface Characterization and Microstructure of Evaporated Cadmium Thin Films

Wafaa K.Khalef; Waseem Najeeb Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 130-141

The influence of oblique angle deposition on the surface morphological and microstructure of metallic cadmium films are studied. The films were deposited normally and obliquely at different angles (0º, 50º and 70º) by vacuum evaporation technique. XRD technique used to study the crystalline structure of these films and shows that the polycrystalline nature of these films and All layers irrespective of deposition parameters develop a preferred (002) plane. The grain size increased with the increase of deposition angle and clearly facetted morphology was observed. The surface morphology of the deposited materials has been studied using atomic force microscopes (AFM) and optical reflection microscope. The AFM results demonstrate that the film deposition at higher oblique angle (70°) has higher surface roughness. Reflection microscope results showed that the smoothness and homogeneity of the films are decreasing with increasing the deposition angle d), and the surface roughness increased with increasing angle. The optical characteristics of the prepared thin films have been investigated by UV-VIS spectrophotometer in a wavelength ranging (350-900) nm and shows by increasing the inclination angle of deposition will lead to transmission decreases of the films.

Synthesis of Colloidal Copper Oxide Nan Oparticles Using Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Ablation in Liquid

Abdul Qader D. Faisal; Raid A. Ismail; Zainab N. Jameel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 14-23

This work reports the attempts to carry out pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) for synthesizing colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles (NPs). Copper oxide NPs was synthesized by 7ns Nd:YAG laser ablation of high purity copper target immersed in different solutions; ethanol, acetone, and water. The optical and morphological properties of copper oxide NPs were investigated. It was found that the optical absorbance, energy gap, size, and distribution of copper oxide nanoparticles are dependent on liquid type. Plasmon peak was observed at 550nm for Cu NPs ablated in acetone and methanol liquids, while it was disappeared for those ablated in water. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the average grain size of copper oxide particles ablated in acetone, ethanol, and water were 276 nm, 300, and 360nm, respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to study the vibrational frequencies between the bonds of atoms for a synthesized copper oxide NPs at different liquids. All these results confirm the complete oxidation of ablated copper.

Structural, Chemical and Morphological of Porous Silicon Produced by Electrochemical Etching

Amna A. Salman; Fatima I. Sultan; Uday M. Nayef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 5, Pages 855-867

In this paper, the nanocrystalline porous silicon (PS) films is prepared by electrochemical etching of p-type silicon wafer with different currents density (15 and 30 mA/cm2) and etching times on the formation nano-sized pore array with a dimension of around few hundreds nanometric. The films were characterized by the measurement of XRD, FTIR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy properties.
We have estimated crystallites size from X-Ray diffraction about nanoscale for porous silicon and Atomic Force microscopy confirms the nanometric size Chemical fictionalization during the electrochemical etching show on surface chemical composition of PS. The etching possesses inhomogeneous microstructures that contain a-Si clusters (Si3–Si–H) dispersed in amorphous silica matrix and (O-SiO,
C-SiO). From the FTIR analyses showed that the Si dangling bonds of the as-prepared PS layer have large amount of Hydrogen to form weak Si–H bonds. The atomic force microscopy investigation shows the rough silicon surface, with increasing etching process (current density and etching time) porous structure nucleates which leads to an increase in the depth and width (diameter) of surface pits. Consequently, the surface roughness also increases.