Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : SEM


Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles Using Black Tea Leaves Extract as Adsorbent for Removing Eriochrome Blue-Black B Dye

Dalal Ghanim; Ghayda Y. Al-Kindi; Ahmed Kh. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 10A, Pages 1558-1569
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i10A.1225

Recently, the world has directed to find environmentally friendly and clean materials to be used to treat wastes difficult to treat in the traditional way such as dyes. The object of this study was to synthesize iron nanoparticles using black tea extracts in an environmentally sustainable method. Also, it was developed by supporting with bentonite, used to remove Eriochrome blue-black B dyes from synthesis wastewater of textile factory. From the results, it was noted that black tea leaf extract has reduced iron ions to iron nanoparticles at room temperature. Composite iron nanoparticles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies where the diameter of iron nanoparticles was less than 70 nm. This research shows that ferrous nanoparticles can be manufactured using black tea leaf extract as a reducing agent. It also shows better-supported nanoparticles than unsupported. The decolorization efficiency catalyzed BT-NZVI, B-BT-NZVI increased from (14%, 42%) to (48%, 68%) at 180 min of batch processes when the NZVI concentration was increased from 0.5 g/L to 2 g/L respectively.

Morphological and Optical Properties of Porous Silicon

Mohammed S. Mohammed; Ruqaya A. Shlaga

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1B, Pages 17-20
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1B.3

In this work photo-electrochemical etching was used to synthesize uniform and non-uniform macro porous silicon from n-type with orientation (100). Specimens were anodized in a sol of 25% HF: C2H2OH at 1:1 rate. Morphology and porosity of the samples were studied. Optical characteristics (reflection and photoluminescence) of PS samples by changing current density (10, 12, 14 and 16 mA/cm2 ) for fixed etching time (8min) and power density (17mW/cm2 ) by using red laser illumination wavelength (645nm) were investigated. Porous silicon samples imaged via scanning electron microscope (SEM), which showed the topography of silicon surface and pores distribution.

Use of Nano-Magnetic Material for Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater

G.K. Salman; A.J. Bohan; G.M. Jaed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 9, Pages 903-908

The reason of this study is to consider the removal of heavy metal lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in wastewater by magnetic material using ferrite. It has been use batch experiments and operating condition are, ph(10,7and5) and time (20, 40, 60.80.100, 120) min and temperature (30) 0C after that we find the optimum condition to remove heavy metal. heavy metal in water detected by using Atomic Absorption (AA) before and after adding Cu-ferrites powder while the Cu-ferrites was characteristic by XRD and SEM ,result indicate that Cu-ferrites powder spinel structure and the particle size in range (30-40)nm ,and explain antimicrobial effectiveness of ferrites material from effect on gram positive and negative bacteria and the results appeared ability of copper ferrites to inhibition growth of both E. coli as example of gram negative bacteria and S. aureus as example of gram positive bacteria while was the E. coli survival rate of all ferrite nanoparticles concentration is more than the S. aureus survival rate , the percentage survival of bacteria was ( 35 , 20 , 12 , 5 %) in (0.625 , 1.25 , 2.5 , 5 mg/ml) concentration of microorganisms E.coli and ( 28 , 15 , 8 , 3 %) in (0.625 , 1.25 , 2.5 , 5 mg/ml) concentration for bacteria Staph. Aureus

Study of the Influence of Incorporation of Gold Nanoparticles on the Modified Porous Silicon Sensor for Petroleum Gas Detection

A.M. Alwan; A.B. Dheyab; A.J. Allaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 811-815

In this work, the influence of alloying the porous surface with uniform distributed gold nanoparticles on the characteristic porous silicon gas sensors for petroleum gas detection has been fabricated and studied extensively. Well-controlled gold nanoparticles were prepared by employing the simple dipping process of the macro porous silicon surface in diluted concentrations of HAuCl4 salt aqueous solution. The sensing properties of the prepared porous silicon-based sensors, sensitivity response and recovery times at room temperature operating in CO gas were studied. The sensitivity of alloyed porous silicon increased from 38% to about 82% incorporation of gold nanoparticles. The lowest gas pressure detection process of CO molecules was improved from 1 mbar to 0.5 mbar. The surface alloying with rounded gold nanoparticles improved the integrated specific surface area of the alloyed porous silicon/gold nanoparticles structure, so efficient gas developed with the low-cost process.

Influence of EDM Parameters on the Appearance of Recast Layer

S.K. Shather; A.F. Ibrahim; N. Jammal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 7, Pages 694-700

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of non-traditional methods employed to produce complicated forms of electrical conductive materials. This process can be applied to materials difficult to machine with traditional methods. Thus, the study and analysis of EDM variables play an important role to improve the yield, and safety of a surface. This research aims at study and analyze influence of pulse current (Ip) (10, 16, 22) Amp, pulse on time (Ton) (50, 100,150) μs and pulse off time (Toff) (25, 50, 75) μs, (keeping other parameters fixed) on a Recast Layer Thickness (RLT) for machining (AISI 1018 mild carbon steel) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) within “Minitab 17” for designing of experiments. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used. Experiments proved that minimum RLT was 5.2 μm at Ip, Ton and Toff at 10Amp, 50 μs and75 μs, respectively. The results also indicated that RLT increased with the increased (Ip and Ton) and decreased in Toff.

Effect of Steel Fibers, Polypropylene Fibers and/ or Nanosilica on Mechanical Properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete

Iqbal N. Gorgis; Maan S. Hassan; Rana T. Abdulkareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2016, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 527-538

This research concerned studying the combined effect of using nano-silica and/ or hybrid fibers on key mechanical properties of self-consolidating concrete SCC. A comprehensive experimental work has been carried out, using steel fiber (SF) with volume fraction (0, 0.5% and 1.5%), polypropylene fiber (PPF) (0%, 0.05% and 0.15%) and SiO2 nanoparticles (0%, 2% and 4%) by weight of powdered material (silica fume- Sf ) with constant w/c ratio (0.48) to produce eleven different mixtures and tested at different ages (7, 28 and 90 days).
Results showed that adding fibers adversely affect SCC workability and thus more dosage of super plasticizer (SP) should be added to stay within the standard limits. comparable to conventional concretes, the presence of steel fibers with SCC provide slight increase in compressive strength at 28 days, (up to 11%), while significant enhancement in tensile properties were observed (up to 24% and 32% for splitting and flexural strength respectively). Polypropylene or hybrid fibers however, provide lower enhancement compared with steel fibers. In contrast, implementation of nanosilica leads to significant improvement in concrete strengths particularly at 4% dosage. Combined effect of 4% nanosilica and 1.5% of steel fibers provide the superior hardening effect on the flexural performance compared with softening effect provided by other added dosages. Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) images confirm the matrix densification effect due to nanosilica adding. Flexural strength of SCCs without nanosilica was generally higher than splitting testing results. This fact does not change even with the presence of nanosilica and/ or fibers.

Synthesis of Metallic Nanowires Using Hydrothermal Method

Nadheer Jassim Mohammed; Walid Ibrahim Hamad; Reem Sami Ali; Raghad Saadon Mohammed; Sundus Yasser Helyel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 7, Pages 1244-1247

Silver nanowire grow on FTO coated quartz substrate by using hydrothermal method, it can be observed that the morphology of the product is wire-like and nearly uniform in width (60 ± 10 nm), while the length is in a relatively broad range (from 0.2 to 4 µm) with an average at 2.5 µm. The calculated lattice constant according to the (111) peak is 4.08 Å which is closely consistent with the standard value (4.086 Å).

Laser surface cleaning of stones and some metal objects

Walid K. Hamoudi; Mehdi S. Edan; Hanan . Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 5, Pages 972-983

Iron, copper and stone samples were cleaned by Nd: YAG laser using different number of nano laser pulses at variable intensities. Fundamental (1.06 µm) and frequency doubled (0.53 µm) wavelengths cleaning efficiency was tested by measuring the crust and oxide removal rate. A laboratory environmental chamber was built and utilized to study the effect of processing gas on the cleaning process. Surface ref lectivity, SEM and optical microscope investigations indicated the effectiveness of Nd: YAG laser cleaning without damaging the surface. The use of high laser pulse energies helped achieving reasonably good and fast cleaning, whereas low laser energy required larger number of pulses, but ensured safe cleaning. Optimum results were obtained when using the fundamental laser wavelength under O2 environment.

Preparation and Study Effects of Stirring Time on the Structural and Optical Properties of SnO2 Nanoparticles

T.A.AL-Dhahir; Noor A. Hameed; Ziyad Tariq Khodair; Tagreed. M. Al-Saadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 5, Pages 960-971

Tin Oxide nanoparticles (SnO2-NPs) were prepared by mixing (SnCl4.5H2O) with distilled water at room temperature. The samples were characterized for their crystalline structure, morphology and chemical structure by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD data and Dicvol 91 software analysis the crystal system was found to be tetragonal structure for samples prepared under stirring time for (24,48,72) h with (a=4.745 , c=3.184), (a=4.768 , c=3.255) and (a=4.776 and c=3.257) respectively. The average of crystallite size calculated by using SEM it was 9.45 nm, 14.7 nm and 21.5 nm, for the same times, previously mentioned of stirring. The effect of stirring time on the crystal lattice distortion ratio, specific surface area and dislocation density was discussed. The optical band gap values of SnO2-NPs were calculated to be about 3.4eV, 3.37eV and 3.2eV under stirring time for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h respectively by optical absorption measurement.

Production of Micro and Nano Zirconia Particle by Pulsed Laser Ablation

Mohammed Sellab Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 10, Pages 2376-2385

In this work, zerconia nano particles have been synthesis by using laser ablation in water. AFM measurement displayed that the particle size of Zerconia was 46nm and no other phases have been noticed. The root mean square of surface roughness becomes 0.743nm after laser ablation, while before that was 2.33nm. Granularity distribution chart observed that the particle size distribution of Zerconia before laser ablation was (100-400) nm, while after that become (20-80) nm .The microstructure investigation of zerconia nano particle was carried out by using SEM.

Recycling of an Effluent Soot from Kademia Diesel-Power Plant as a Carbon Source for the Synthesis and Characterization of NanoCarbon

Adel Sharif Hamadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2014, Volume 32, Issue 3, Pages 386-395

Soot obtained as an effluent from Kademia diesel-power station was recycled and utilized as feedstock for preparation of nano carbon particles. The porosity, surface area analysis featured by BET N2 adsorption, proximate analysis, Fourier Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employed for the structural and morphological characterization of the halocarbon formed.
Ultimate analysis of the fuel oil samples indicate that the H/C ratio of nanospheres is less 0.085 which is an indication of crystallization in the nanomaterial formed.
The results obtained from BET analysis had specific surface area increases to 50 m2/g, comparing with 28 m2/g of that the raw soot. SEM results shows a variations in size and shape of nanocarbon particles formed. The FTIR spectrum of soot shows characteristic signals in the range of 400-4000 cm-1 where corresponding to SO4 2- (600 cm-1), NO3 - (850 cm-1), CO3 2- (900 cm-1), SiO4 4- (1050 cm-1), C–OH aromatics (1250 cm-1), NO3 - (1300 cm-1), CO3 2- (1650 and 1720 cm-1), C=CH alkenes (2930 cm-1), and C – OH alcohols (3400 and 3550 cm-1). XRD investigation indicates the presence of large amount of amorphous material in association with nanocarbon at moderately high intensity broad peak; 2θ=23.5140o, where at the low intensity; 2θ=48.6389o indicate of the low quality of nanomaterial presented in the soot.

Fabrication of Tio2 and V2o5 Thin Films by Powder Coating Technique

Mohammed S. Hamza; Alaa Aladdin; Shatha Kazem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 16, Pages 3194-3202

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and vanadium oxide (V2O5) in different mixing percentage
(100, 50, 0)% from them powders as thin film on substrate of glass .the coating
thickness was ( 0.37 ±0.03 μm ).
Thin films were inspection by microphotographs with scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD).
The results showed that thin films was prepared crystalline and also the compound
(tio2, v2o5), and the structure was regular and smooth.

Structural and Optical Characterization of NanocrystallinePbs Thin Films Synthesized by CBDMethod

Ali M. Mousa; Selma M. Al-Jawad; Suad M.Kadhim Al-shammari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 5, Pages 603-612

Nanocrystalline PbS thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique using lead acetate ,KoH, thiourea and T.E.A. The films were btained in a reaction bath at times of (15 ,30 ,45 ,60 and 90)min. Structure and surface morphology of thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD indicates that the films have cubic structure. The crystallite size of the films were found to vary from (4.9 to 11.3 nm).The band gaps of the nanocrystalline PbS were determined from UV-Vis spectrophotometer and were found to be in the range( 1.72 -2.4 eV).

Morphological Aspects of Oxidized Porous Silicon Prepared by Photo Electrochemical Etching

Ali A. A; aa S. Ahmed; Zahr; Alwan M. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 314-321

This paper reports morphological properties of porous silicon and oxidized
porous silicon, prepared by photo electrochemical etching from n-type silicon wafers as
a function of experimental parameters. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM)
Observations of porous silicon layers were obtained before and after rapid thermal
oxidation process under different preparation and oxidation conditions .The surface
morphology, Pore diameter, wall thickness, pore shape and porosity values were,
studied based on microstructure analyses of (SEM) images.