Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Bentonite

Nano Ferrites as Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon Steel in Local Iraqi Bentonite Mud

N.A. Al-Rubaiey; F.S. Kadhim; A.A. Ati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2017, Volume 35, Issue 8, Pages 849-855

Corrosion processes are accountable for serious losses in the oil industry. Although organic and inorganic materials and mixed materials inhibitors have been used for a long time to control or reduce corrosion. Using nano-materials as inhibitors has gained an increasing applications role because of their exceptional properties. Nano materials are good corrosion inhibitors because they possess many advantages such as high efficiency of inhibition, low cost, minimum toxicity and effortless production. This work examines the use of nano-materials as inhibitors to prevent corrosion of carbon steel in drilling mud. Anti-corrosion properties of zinc and nickel ferrite nano materials (ZnFe2O4, Zn0.6Ni0.4Fe2O4) have been investigated over carbon steel in local Iraqi bentonite mud as a source of the corrosion. It has been found that under the given conditions, ferrites act as efficient corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel.

Beneficiation Pretreatment and Chemical Activation Method For Preparation and Characterization of Nano Structure Bentonite

Adel Sharif Hamadi; Riyadh M. Noaman; Thamera Kidher; Ghassan Rokan; Maan Ali; Quraish abass; DinaNaumat; Hamsa Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2015, Volume 33, Issue 9, Pages 1683-1692

Bentonite has widely been employed in many industrial applications due to their physicochemical properties and availability at low cost. The aim of this work was conducted to submit the Iraqi natural bentonite clay to beneficiation pretreatment and chemical acidification using 60% sulfuric acid under mechanical agitation for 2 hours at atmospheric temperature and pressure condition. The resulting bentonite was washed several times with distilled water and modified with ethanol under ultrasonic mixing. An experimental study was conducted to study the chemical composition, grain size, structural characterization and morphology of nano particle bentonite obtained using techniques of AFM microscopy, X-ray fluorescence XRF, X-ray diffraction XRD, scanning electron microscopy SEM, surface area by BET method, and FT-IR spectra.
The calculated surface area of nanobentonite was 161.842 m2/gm, and total pore volume of 0.2196 cm3/gm. The nanoscalebentonite particles diameter in the range of 52 nm at maximum intensity of AFM. The FITR spectra assigned peaks; at 3392.22 and 1635.69 cm-1 is attributed to OH stretching (Al-OH and Si-OH) for bentonite, at 1159, 798.20 and 677.46cm-1 are assigned to characteristic bands of silicates; and peak at 500.08 cm-1 is responsible for Al-O-Si group deformation. SEM analysis show that nanobentonite structure due to beneficiation and activation conditions. The results of X-ray diffraction after activation observed that the intensity of the reflections of the characteristic peak of the gypsum and calcite belonging to the other minerals change due to destruction of the structure in the bentonite phases.

Effect of Suction on Volumetric Yielding Behavior under Different Initial Conditions for Fine-Grained Soils

Yasir Al-Badran; Tom Schanz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 20, Pages 339-358

The unsaturated soils are difficult to consider within the framework of classical (saturated) soil mechanics. In general, the unsaturated soil is stiffer than the saturated one (hardening), so the location and slope of normal consolidated line (NCL) or the volumetric yielding behavior of unsaturated soil is different from the saturated behavior. This work investigates the volumetric yielding behavior of unsaturated soil; by determine the One-dimensional normal consolidated lines (NCL’s) under different suctions. Two materials namely pure Calcigel bentonite (100B) and a mixture of 30% Calcigel bentonite and 70 % Haider sand (30B) were prepared at two initial conditions (i.e. slurry and loose states). In this type of test, after reaching to the designed suction, the net stress is increased through the test while the suction is kept constant. Thirteen 30B specimens and two 100B specimens were tested under constant suction condition. The constant applied suction in this study was varied from 0 kPa till 39000 kPa because of the possibility to increase the preconsolidation pressure (yield stress) more than 24000 kPa (the maximum limit of the used one-dimensional high stress consolidation equipments). Two techniques (i.e. axis translation technique and vapor equilibrium technique) were used to apply and control suction on tests. The controlled-suction one-dimensional high stress consolidation tests results show that the position and the slope of NCL’s depend on both net stress and suction. The NCL’s either, for low suction value, has void ratio lower than the saturated NCL (associated with slope lower than the saturated NCL), or the NCL has void ratio higher than the saturated NCL (associated with slope higher than the saturated NCL) for higher suction value.

Study Shear Strength Characteristics of Gypseous Sandy Soil Using Additives

Hussein H. Karim; T. Schanz; Maha H. Nasif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2013, Volume 31, Issue 8, Pages 1431-1446

The present study investigated the possibility of enhancing collapsible gypseous soil of Al-Qarma site (with relatively high gypsum content around 50%), which is located in Al-Anbar Governorate, using kaolinite and bentonite as additives. The essential idea is concentrated in mixing these additives with natural soil using different percentages (5, 10, 15 and 20% by soil dry weight) to investigate soil shear strength enhancement. The effect of such additives on soil shear strength parameters, cohesion (C) and angle of internal friction (Φ), and their behavior were studied using direct shear test. The results showed that shear strength parameters of soil sometimes increased and then decreased with increasing additives. Generally, higher shear strength parameters have been obtained from bentonite mixed soil than that of kaolinite mixed soil for the same percentages of additives. It was concluded that bentonite was much more effective in increasing C and reducing Φ than kaolinite. While, kaolinite was much more effective in reducing C than bentonite. It was also concluded that gypseous soil shear strength is improved using such additives (with only 5% kaolinite or with only 20% bentonite) which provide cohesion strength to the soil mass and also acts as a binder agent material.

Improving Collapsibility and Compressibility of Gypseous Sandy Soil Using Bentonite and Kaolinite

Hussein H. Karim; T. Schanz; Maha H. Nasif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 18, Pages 3141-3153

The sandy soil which covers the surface layer for the investigated area consists of
high gypsum content (50%). The soil was found to be a “collapsible” soil. Thus
bentonite and kaolinite have been used as an improving agents for such soil. The
essential idea of this study represents an investigation of the possibility of using
these materials as additives with different percents (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to
enhance these soils. A testing program was conducted on 9 models of untreated and
treated gypseous soil specimens to study the behavior of such mixes as well as their
effects on physical properties, collapsibility and compressibility characteristics. It
was concluded that a significant reduction in collapsibility reaching 80 to 82 % for
the 10 percent mixed kaolinite and bentonite respectively. Lowest compression
index (Cc) and recompression index (Cr) have been obtained using the same
percentages of mixed additives. Generally, best improving results have been
obtained using bentonite additive (specially the ratio 10%) for its finer grains than
those of kaolinite.

Study the Influence of Poly Vinyl Acetate on Flow Behavior of Bentonite Dispersions in Water

Saad R. Sultan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 799-808

The present investigation is concerned to study the influence of poly vinyl
acetate (PVAc.) on flow behavior of bentonite dispersions in water, poly vinyl acetate
was added to the bentonite dispersion in different concentration (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5
and 20) gm/l. after that, the flow properties of these samples was measured and that
included (viscosity, shear stress, shear rate and Bingham yield value), The results show
thixotropy flow by a hysteresis loop of the flow curves for bentonite dispersion with and
without poly vinyl acetate, but with (PVAc.) give higher fluidity flow.
Also the morphology of bentonite dispersions was analyzed before and after adding
poly vinyl acetate by scanning electron micrograph (SEM), it is show that a weak
association between (PVAc.) and bentonite dispersions.