Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Keywords : Chemical


Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessment in the Chemical Stores of the University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq

Azhar M. Haleem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2020, Volume 38, Issue 3B, Pages 204-211
DOI: 10.30684/etj.v38i3B.894

Chemicals are used daily at the university, by its students or staff so it’s necessary to develop a chemical management system to protect their workers and students from accidents caused by exposure to chemicals of various forms, the present study explains the methodology for assessing the health effects and risks of exposure to chemicals in the chemical stores of University of Technology (UOT) by using semi- quantitative risk assessment technique depends on a descriptive analytical approach, by collecting the requested information for seven main stores within the university by questionnaire form included inquiries about personal information about employees, level of education and years of experience, it also included inquiries about chemical stores and storage volumes, at first identified the exposed people, detected high demand chemicals, subsequently identified the chemical hazardous factors, exposure rate and risk level of each substance, ultimately the risk was identified for 41 chemicals among them four strong acids, hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric and chromic with high exposure rate
benzene and xylene that have high risk level, from results of chemical survey can be conclude 71% of the total chemicals classified as high to moderate risk level, so the study recommends the continuity of the periodic assessment of chemical hazards within the stores of university, include laboratories in assessment procedures, providing of personal safety equipment.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics Comparison of the Drinking Water and Water Produced from the Conventional and Modification Solar Water Distillery

Hussein H. Mohammed Ali; Sabah T. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 6A, Pages 214-221
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.6A.5

A comparison of the physical and chemical characteristics of water samples produced from the conventional and modification solar water distilleries, and water samples of networks from different regions in Kirkuk were carried out. Two samples of each water type were tested. The study has focused on measuring the total dissolved solids, pH, electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfate, nitric and chloride. The results show that all tests of distillate water produced from the solar water distillery are within Iraqi and world standards lower than the other samples, but only pH values ranged from 7 to 8.3, which are within the standard specifications.

Application of Microwave Heating in the Demulsification of Crude Oil Emulsions

Firdos M. Abdulla; Mohammed R. Ali; Jenan A. AL-Najar; Nedhal A. Shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2019, Volume 37, Issue 1C, Pages 79-83
DOI: 10.30684/etj.37.1C.12

In recent times the formation of pre-processing water-in-crude emulsions in petroleum industries has led to some inherent challenges such as the reduction in the efficiency of oil recovery, high cost of operation and corrosion in pipes. Traditional ways of pulverizing the emulsions using heat and chemical approaches have many disadvantageous from both economic and environmental points of view. Microwave irradiation is an efficient method for the demulsification of the water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion, encountered in refinery industries. The microwave technology is a costeffective way of emulsifying water-in-crude-oil emulsion. Two methods were used for conducting the demulsification performance test, i.e. chemical and microwave. The method of chemical demulsification using octylamine was found to be the best water separation efficiency achieved at 2.5 vol.% Octylamine with (35-65%) W/O emulsion, the separation touched to 90% within 3 days and the greatest oil separation efficiency attained at 2.5 vol.% Octylamine at the same ratio of W/O emulsion, the separation reached 91% within 3 days. The demulsification process efficiency increased by microwave, where the water separation rate reached to (100%) at 4 minutes with (35-65%) W/O emulsion. Light crude oils were used. The fundamental principles of formation, formulation and breaking of O/W emulsions in the microwave heating process were adequately elucidated using some physicochemical characterization techniques This further helps in the development of a cost-effective method of demulsifying the W/O emulsion. Water-in-crude oil emulsions of volume percentage ranges, i.e. (25-75%) and (35-65%) were adopted.